Dr. Roger Hastings, PhD.
Principal Physicist, Unisys Corporation
Former Associate Professor of Physics
North Dakota State University
>PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ONE NEWMAN MOTOR
>
>This document compiles and analyzes the results of several experiments
>performed on the Newman Motor. The results of the experimental work show
>that this motor operates with energy output far in excess of energy input.
>This work is intended to characterize the motor, and to organize the
>experimental results. It is hoped that the document will serve as a guide
>in the development of the mathematical theory which explains the Newman
>Motor.
>
>I. Mechanical Energy Output
>
>A. Test against a d.c. Permanent Magnet Motor/Rated 80% Efficient.
>
>In this experiment, eight fresh 1.5 Volt alkaline batteries were connected
>to an 80% rated efficient d.c. motor. The motor turned an oil pump at
>about 1 Hz. The motor ran for 6 minutes, and the final battery voltage was
>about 60% of the starting voltage.
>
>Alkaline batteries were used because battery performance curves were
>available from the manufacturer. One such chart is plotted in Fig. 1. The
>performance of the d.c. motor is verified by the chart, which predicts that
>the batteries, when initially drained at 2 amps, will last 6 min. The
>measured motor drain under load was near 2 amps.
>
> 2.0!* <------ Operating Point of d.c. motor
> !
> !
> 1.8!
> !
> !
> 1.6!
> !
> ! *
> 1.4!
> !
> !
> 1.2!
> !
> !
> 1.0!
> !
> !
> 0.8!
> !
> ! *
> 0.6!
> !
> !
> 0.4! *
> ! ___ Operating
>pt./Newman Motor
> ! /
> 0.2! X
> ! *
> !
> 0!_______________________________________________________________________
> 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0
>
>Vertical axis ---- Starting Drain (Amps)
>Horizontal axis ---- Time to Reach 60% of Fresh Battery Voltage (hours)
>
>FIGURE 1: Eveready Alkaline Battery Performance Curve
>Starting Current Drain VS Time to Reach 60% of Fresh Battery Voltage
>
>[Any typographical errors in this document are a result of the typist
>preparing this in ASCII format; any positional and/or notational
>irregularities in the graphs/formulae depicted in this document may be due
>to transmission between platforms. Wherever possible, words are used
>instead of mathematical symbols to reduce the incidence of such notational
>irregularities.]
>
>
>The above results allow us to estimate the power consumed by the oil pump.
>We find:
>
> initial pump output power
>___________________________ equals 0.8
>initial battery input power
>
>pump output equals 0.8 times 2 amps times 12 volts equals 19 Watts
>
>
>The same pump was connected to the Newman Motor (with a 90# permanent
>magnet rotor) so that the pump again ran at near 1 Hz. Therefore, the pump
>was consuming the same power in this experiment. Eight fresh batteries
>were connected to the Newman Motor. The batteries were drained to about
>60% of their starting voltage after seven (7) hours! Although the input
>current to the Newman Motor follows a complicated waveform, we may estimate
>the initial average input current from the performance curve (fig. 1).
>Using 0.2 amps at 12 volts we find:
>
>Initial Newman Motor Input equals 2.4 Watts.
>
>Since the output is consuming 19 Watts, we have:
>
>Newman Motor Efficiency equals 19 divided by 2.4 times 100 percent equals
>800 percent.
>
>At this point we note that the intrinsic efficiency of the Newman Motor
>could be greatly increased. As designed now, the motor has a tremendous
>leakage flux, and extreme mechanical losses. An efficiently designed
>Newman Motor would certainly have three times the efficiency quoted above,
>and perhaps ten times (8,000 percent).
>
>
>B. Static Torque Test
>
>The output shafts of the d.c. motor and Newman Motor were connected in turn
>to a scale via a pulley and belt. The d.c. motor pulled a maximum of 1.5
>lbs., while the Newman motor pulled 13 lbs. At maximum load the d.c. motor
>consumed about 24 Watts while the Newman Motor consumed only 2.4 Watts.
>
>
> Newman Motor 13
> Static Torque Ratio: ------------ equals --- equals 8.7
> d.c. motor 1.5
>
>
> Newman Power
> @ Input Energy Ratio: ---------------- equals 0.1
> d.c. motor power
>
>
>If we define a motor performance parameter under static loads by the ratio
>of maximum torque output to the input energy drain, we find that this
>number is 87 times larger for the Newman Motor than for the d.c. permanent
>magnet motor.
>
>
>C. Battery Lifetime Tests
>
>It has become apparent that the batteries powering the Newman motor outlive
>the expectations of the manufacturer. In this test, 124 old alkaline
>batteries were used to power the (90 lb. rotor) motor. The batteries read
>2/3 of their fresh voltage value at the outset of the experiment. It was
>found that the 90 lb cylindrical rotor is spun up to 6 Hz. in 21 sec. when
>the batteries are connected to the motor. The voltage drops from 125 V. to
>70 V. when the batteries are connected, and remains at 70 V. when the rotor
>runs at speed. The minimum power supplied by the batteries is therefore
>equal to the power required to spin up the rotor.
>
> This is:
>
> P equals one-half I W(squared) /t
>
> where
>
> t equals time to spin up rotor equals 21 sec.
>
> W equals angular speed equals 2 X ½ X 6 Hz.
>
> R[squared] L[squared]
> I equals M ( ------- plus ------- )
> 4 12
>
> M equals rotor mass equals 41 kg.
>
> R equals rotor radius (apr.) equals .08m.
>
> L equals rotor length (apr.) equals .31m.
>
>
>This yields a minimum energy required to keep the rotor spinning at 6 Hz.
>of 13 Watts. Therefore the batteries must be supplying at least 13/70
>equals 190 m amps. As a separate estimate it was found that a constant
>drain of 300 m amps. through a resistor drops the battery voltage from 125
>V to 70 V. Consulting the battery charts we find that a fresh battery with
>a starting drain of 150 m amps. (100 m amps. when V equals 2/3 starting
>voltage) will drop from 2/3 to 1/2 of its starting voltage in a few hours.
>If the batteries began at 2/3 of their fresh voltage under a drain of 250 m
>amps. they would be very dead in two hours.
>
>The Newman Motor has been run for between one and four hours per day for a
>total of ten hours. The batteries began at 2/3 of their fresh voltage, and
>after the ten hours the voltage had not dropped perceptibly. Joseph Newman
>intends to continue running the motor a few hours per day to test the
>limits of his motor. Here again, the mechanical energy consumed by the
>spinning rotor is far in excess of the maximum possible electrical energy
>which could be supplied by the batteries (according to the charts). An
>efficiency near 1000 percent is indicated by the experiment to date.
>
>THREE WEEKS LATER:
>
>On this date the old batteries have worn down to a point at which they will
>not even run a one and one-half V. small toy motor. Yet when they are
>connected to the Newman motor, the 90 lb. rotor is spun up to 4.5 Hz in
>about 20 seconds!
>
>
>II. Electrical Energy Output
>
>The Newman Motor generates electrical energy by induction. The relevant
>experiments have been documented and indicate an efficiency of about 400
>percent in the generation of electrical power. Experiments have since been
>run in which mechanical energy was measured via measurement of the
>frequency at which the motor runs while delivering a measured torque.
>Electrical energy was simultaneously generated, and the sum of electrical
>and mechanical energy was roughly twice the energy obtained when only
>electrical energy was generated. In this experiment an accurate measure of
>the input power was not made. Instead, batteries were used and the time
>required to drain the batteries to a given voltage was measured. It was
>hoped that the battery charts could be used to estimate the input power.
>The result was too close to 100% efficiency to rely upon the accuracy of
>the charts. It should be noted that the measured output energy did not
>include losses in the belt used to transmit torque. In addition, the whole
>measurement apparatus was set into motion by the magnetic force during
>rotation.
>
>
>III. Static Measurements
>
>Joseph Newman has made measurements of the static torque generated by his
>600 pound magnet at various voltages. These results agree with theoretical
>predictions based upon measurements of the magnetic moment of the magnet.
>The predicted torque is:
>
> __` __` __`
> ¬/´ equals M times H ,
>
>and the maximum torque is MH. The static field generated by the coil is:
>
>
> N I
> H equals ---
> L
>
>
> N equals no. turns
>
>
> L equals coil height
>
>
> I equals coil current
>
>
>The magnetic field of the 600 lb. magnet was measured at various distances
>from the magnet using a Hall effect transducer (factory calibrated). These
>results were compared with the expression for the dipole field to yield a
>magnetic moment of:
>
> 7 \ / 3 3
> M equals 10 0- ft or 100 gauss ft. Therefore, the maximum torque
>is predicted to be:
>
> -3 NI
> ¬/´ equals MH equals 2.6 times 10 (----) ft. lbs.,
> L
>
>I in amps,
>
>L in meters.
>
>
>The length of the motor coil is .69 m. and the number of turns is 2,630.
>Therefore,
>
> ¬/´ equals 9.9 I ft. lbs. (I in amps).
>
>
>Joseph Newman's measurements of torque and current are listed below:
>
>
>Voltage I ¬/´ ¬/´ / I
> 6 .6 17.3/4 7.21
> 12 .98 33/4 8.42
> 18 .75 29.3/4 9.77
> 24 1.3 38/4 7.31
> 30 1.4 47/4 8.39
> -----
> average 8.2
>
>
>The value 8.2 for ¬/´ / I compares well with the predicted value of 9.9
>considering inaccuracies in measuring devices.
>
>It has often been noted by Joseph Newman that for a fixed power input to a
>coil, the torque increases with the moment of the magnet. If the magnet is
>made infinitely magnetic, the torque becomes infinite, even if the power to
>the coil is very small.
>
>
>IV. Dynamic Properties
>
>A.) Inductance
>
>To begin with, the inductance of the 600 lb. magnet motor coil may be
>predicted and taken from measurement. The predicted value is:
>
> 2 A
> L equals M N --- ,
> o L
>
> A equals coil area
>
> L equals coil length
>
> N equals 2630
>
>
>With a coil radius of 2.5 feet and 2.25 feet length, we predict L equals 23
>henries.
>
>
>In operation, the motor inputs a square wave voltage for a fraction of the
>roughly 0.5 Hz. cycle. Since the coil resistance is 13r, L/R should be
>much larger than one period, and we predict a current rise of:
>
>
> --------------
> !
> !
> V !
> ------------
>
>
> /
> /
> I /
> /
> --------------------------
>
>
> V -t/L/R V
> I equals --- (l-e ) approximately equal to --- t
> R L
>
>
>
>From an oscillograph photo with no load on the system, the coil current
>rises 0.5 amps in 0.1 sec. when 200 volts are switched across the coil.
>Thus:
>
>
> 200 (0.1)
> L equals ------------- equals 40 Henries
> 0.5
>
>
>The magnet is turning during this measurement so the approximate agreement
>between theory and measurement is reasonable.
>
>
>B.) Motor Frequency
>
>Under no lead and assuming zero friction, the maximum theoretically
>possible frequency of the motor is determined by the condition that the
>induced voltage is equal to (-) the input voltage. The induced voltage is:
>
> 2
> Vind approximately equal to -w Bmagnet ¼ Ro N ,
>
> Bmag equals magnetic induction of rotating magnet
>
> Ro equals coil radius
>
> w equals 2¼ X frequency
>
> With Vind equals - V we find:
>
> V 1
> f equals --- ---------------
> 2
> 2¼ ¼ Ro N Bmag
>
>
> Now Bmag equals 2¼ M ,
> ---
> r
>
>
> M equals magnetic moment , r equals magnet volume
>
>
> W 3
> With m equals .01 --- (ft) , Ro equals .76 m , N equals 2630
> 2
> m
>
>
> 2 3
> /`´/ equals ¼ (1') X 4' equals 12.56 (ft) we find:
>
>
> V ‡
> f equals --- ------------------ equals .0067 V (Hz)
> 3 2
> 4¼ M N R0
>
>
>
> f equals .402 V (rpm)
>
>
>At 200 Volts we find the maximum frequency, if the motor had a 100%
>intrinsic efficiency (no losses) , is:
>
> f equals 80.4 rpm , about double the 600 lb observed motor
>frequency under no load.
>
>
>C.) Energy Input (Theoretical Estimate)
>
>
> Assuming that:
>
> o
> 1.) The voltage input and induced emf are 180 out of phase.
>
> 2.) The voltage input varies sinusoidally.
>
>
>We have:
>
>
> iwt dI
> (V - Vind) e equals L --- plus IR
> dt
>
>
>
> V - Vind
> I equals ------------- cos (wt - Q)
> --------------
> ) 2
> R ) 1 plus (wL)
> ----
> R
>
>
> where t an (Q) equals wL/R
>
>
> The average power consumed by the coil is then:
>
>
> 1 V (V - Vind)
> P equals --- ----------------------- cos (Q)
> 2 --------------
> / 2
> R `/ 1 plus (wL)
> ----
> R
>
>
>
>
> 1 V (V - Vind) V R
>(V - Vind)
> P equals --- ----------------------- apr. equals ---- ----
> 2 -------------- 2wL wL
> / 2
> R `/ 1 plus (wL)
> ----
> R
>
>
> 40
> With w equals 2¼ ---- apr. equals 4 , L equals 50 , wL equals
200 ,
> 60
>
>
> wL 1
> ---- equals 20 , V equals 200 Vind apr. equals --- V
>equals 100 ,
> R 2
>
> 100
> P equals ----- equals 2.5 Watts
> 40
>
>
>This number agrees approximately with Joseph Newman's measurements of input
>power, in an experiment in which output was measured at about 5 Watts. The
>numbers used in the above calculation are approximate so the result
>represents an estimate. The expression for the input power along with the
>expression for Vind allow a prediction of how input power varies with motor
>frequency and voltage. The plot is shown in Figure 2, and the prediction
>is given below:
>
>
> (1) (2) (3)
>10.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 9.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 8.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 7.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 6.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 5.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 4.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 3.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 2.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
> 1.0! * * *
> ! * * *
> ! * * *
>
>0!______________________*_______________________*__________________________*
>________
> 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
120
>
>Vertical axis ---- Predicted Input Power (Watts)
>Horizontal axis ---- Motor Frequency (rpm)
>
>FIGURE 2: Predicted Input Power VS Motor Frequency (600 lb unit)
>
> 1) ---- V equals 100 Volts
>
> 2) ---- V equals 200 Volts
>
> 3) ---- V equals 300 Volts
>
>
>[Note: due to the limitations of the ASCII medium, the above ***** lines
>appear jagged;
>also, the graphical representation is qualitative and approximately
>quantitative due the nature of the ******** lines.]
>
>
> 2
>Predicted Power Input equals 450 ( V ) (1 - 200 f )
> --- --- ---
> 200 V 80
> -------------------------------- Watts
> 2
> (1 plus [ f ] )
> -----
> 3.1
>
> V equals input voltage (volts)
>
> f equals motor frequency (rpm)
>
>
>This result was obtained by requiring the derived formula to match the
>experimental result that input power at 200 volts and 35.7 rpm. is 1.8
>Watts.
>
>
>V. Predicted Output Power
>
>The output power is found by averaging the product of torque on the magnet
>and frequency over one cycle. The torque is given by:
>
> ----` ----` ----`
> ¬/´ equals M times H ,
>
> MNI
> and ¬/´ equals MH cos (wt) equals ---- cos (wt) ,
> L
>
>Where the fact that maximum torque occurs in phase with maximum input
>voltage has been used. The output power is therefore:
>
>
> MN (V. - Vind) W
> P (t) equals ---- ------------- ------------------- cos
>(wt) cos (wt-Q) ,
> L R ---------------
> / 2
> `/ 1 plus ( wL )
> ( ---- )
> ( R )
>and the average power is:
>
> 1 MN (V - Vind) w
> Pout equals --- ---- -----------------------
> 2 L R ( 2 )
> ( ( wL ) )
> (1 plus ( ---- ) )
> ( ( R ) )
>
>
>The output power goes to zero at the maximum frequency (V equals Vind) ,
>and also at zero frequency.
>
>
>VI. Predicted Efficiency
>
>Dividing the expressions for output and input power yields:
>
> MN W
>Predicted efficiency equals ---- --- times 100 percent ,
> L V
>
>
>Where W cannot exceed its maximum value. Using MN/L equals 9.9 ft. lbs.
>1 amp equals 13 j./amp yields the following expression for the predicted
>efficiency of the 600 pound Newman motor:
>
>
> f
>Predicted efficiency equals 1.4 ---- times 100 percent , f in r.p.m.
> V V in volts
>
>Operating under no load, the above formula predicts a Newman Motor
>efficiency of 24% (35 rpm at 200 volts). The theoretical maximum motor
>efficiency is obtained by using the maximum frequency of 80 rpm at 200 V.,
>yielding a 56% upper limit in the case that the motor has zero frictional
>losses. Working back through the equations it can be seen that the maximum
>predicted efficiency is given purely in terms of geometrical factors (ratio
>of magnet volume to coil volume), and cannot exceed 100%.
>
>It is clear that the measured efficiencies for the Newman Motor are far in
>excess of predicted efficiencies. The predicted input power is in
>agreement with measured input.
>
>The measured output power exceeds the predicted output. For example, at
>1.8 Watts input and 24% efficiency, we expect 0.4 Watts output from the
>Newman Motor. In one experiment the motor generated 5 Watts of output
>power with 1.8 Watts input drain. The discrepancies are far too large to
>be explained by experimental errors.
>
>
>VII. Unusual (Non Conventional) Behavior
>
>As seen above, a number of properties of the Newman Motor follow
>conventional theory. In specific, the input power is as expected. The
>output power (in excess of input) is the non-conventional result. In my
>mind, the most interesting motor measurement is the oscillograph photos
>taken around the coil showing very high voltages. This photo also shows
>the (to me amazing) fact that the coil current is over three times the
>current at the battery when the voltage is applied.
>
>
>My opinion is that an excess charge is left in the coil when the input
>voltage is cut off. At this point, a spark appears and a huge induced
>e.m.f. is created in the coil. This e.m.f. SHOULD disappear quickly
>(showing up as a spike). However, the high voltage remains, having the
>period of the moving magnet. This indicates that the magnet is "pushing"
>an excess charge around in the coil, and this appears as excess current
>when contact is re-established with the battery.
>
>There is also the issue of the "anomalous" current which appears during the
>spark. It is unclear from the photos whether this current appears in the
>coil, but it has the proper sign and magnitude to drive the magnet.
>
>
>VIII. Future Theoretical Research
>
>The upcoming challenge for this writer is to explain the Newman Motor
>output mathematically. The purpose of the above documentation, for me, is
>to isolate the origin of the excess energy. At that point it is likely
>that application of a unified theory of charge, matter, and energy, e.g.,
>Joseph Newman's Theory, will be required to mathematically describe the
>results. This mathematical exlanation will also have to explain other
>various embodiments of the Newman Invention, which will obviously result
>from the Newman Disclosures.
>
>
>Dr. Roger Hastings, PhD.
>Principal Physicist, Unisys Corporation
>Former Associate Professor of Physics
>North Dakota State University
>
>------------------------------------------------------
>[Note: Since the testing performed on the 600 lb Newman Motor as described
>above, numerous improvements/innovations have been made to subsequent
>Newman Motor designs.]
>
>
>Evan Soule
>Director of Information
>Newman Energy Systems
>
>telephone numbers:
>(601) 947-7147 or
>(504) 524-3063
>
>addresses:
>Route 1, Box 52, Lucedale, MS 39452 USA or
>P.O. Box 57684, New Orleans, Louisiana 70157-7684
>
>email:
>josephnewman@earthlink.net or
>johntesla@aol.com.
>