INFANT MALE CIRCUMCISION

IS NOT IN THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE

HEALTH & RIGHTS OF THE CHILD


FACT SHEET

Scope of the Problem
Early and Current Rationale
Decision Making
Foreskin Function
Penile Development
Immediate Risks and Complications
Long-Term Adverse Outcomes
Effects of Pain
Maternal Bonding / Breastfeeding
Questionable Benefits
Medical Ethics
Obstetrical Involvement
Restoration Movement
Children’s Rights
Why Does It Continue?

  1. Average of state and territory circumcision rates NOCIRC of Australia
  2. Average of provincial circumcision rates compiled from Health & Welfare Canada and Statistics Canada
  3. Average of regional circumcision rates compiled by National Center for Health Statistics
  4. updated from Rockney, R. Newborn Circumcision. American Family Physician, October 1988:151-155
  5. Wallerstein, E. Circumcision: Uniquely American Medical Enigma. Urol. Clinics of N America, February 1985;12:123-132
  6. Milos, M. Circumcision: Male - Effects on Human Sexuality. Human Sexuality: Ency.. NY, Garland 1994:119-121
  7. Paige, K. The Ritual of Circumcision. Human Nature, May 1989:40-48
  8. paraphrased from Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics, August 1989; 84:388-391
  9. Brown. M. Circumcision Decision: Prominence of Social Concerns. Pediatrics, August 1987;80:215- 219
  10. Report of the Task Force on Circumcision. Pediatrics, August 1989;84-388-391
  11. Poland, R. Question of Routine Neonatal Circumcision. New England Journal of Med, May 1990;322:1312-1314
  12. Wallerstein, E. Circumcision: Uniquely American Medical Enigma. Urol Clinics of N Amer, Feb 1985;12:123-132
  13. Gairdner, D. Fate of the Foreskin. British Medical Journal, December 1949:1433-1437
  14. Milos, M. Circumcision: Male - Effects on Human Sexuality. Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia
  15. Ibid.
  16. Gairdner, D. Fate of the Foreskin. British Medical Journal, December 1949:1433-1437
  17. Milos, M. Circumcision: Male - Effects on Human Sexuality. Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia
  18. Denniston, G. Unnecessary Circumcision. The Female Patient, July 1992;17:13-14
  19. Marshall, F. Complications: Pediatric Circumcision. Urol. Complic. Med-Surg. NY, Year Bk Med. 1986:387-395
  20. Williams, N. Complications of Circumcision. British Journal of Surgery, October 1993;80:1231-1236
  21. Snyder, J. The Problem of Circumcision in America. Truth Seeker, July 1989:39-42
  22. Ritter, T. Circumcision Removes More Than a little Snip. Say No to Circumcision. Aptos, Hourglass 1992:18-1
  23. Milos, M. Circumcision: Male - Effects on Human Sexuality. Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia
  24. Hammond, T. Awakenings: Prelim. Poll of Circ. Men. NOHARMM 1992:76-77 [POB 460795, San Franc., 94146]
  25. Ibid.:73-75
  26. Anand, KJS. Pain and its Effects on the Human Neonate and Fetus. New Engl J of Med, 1987;317:1321-1329
  27. Howard, C. Acetaminophen Analgesia in Neonatal Circum.:Effect on Pain. Pediatrics, Apr 1994;93:641-646
  28. Taddio, A. Effect Neonatal Circum. on Pain Responses at Vaccination in Boys. Lancet, Feb. 1995;345:291-292
  29. Marshall, R. Circumcision: Effects on Mother-Infant Interaction. Early Human Development, 1982;7:367-374
  30. Laibow, R. Circ: Relationship Attachment Impairment. NOCIRC Intl Symp. on Circumcision., San Francisco April 1991:14
  31. Piscane, A. Breastfeeding and Urinary Tract Infection. Lancet, July 7, 1990:50
  32. Koch, Y. Hormone in Breast Milk May Help Babies Develop. reported in Wash. Post - Health, May 24, 1994:5
  33. Howard, C. Acetaminophen Analgesia in Neonatal Circum.:Effect on Pain. Pediatrics, Apr 1994;93:641-646
  34. Marshall, R. Circumcision: Effects on Mother-Infant Interaction. Early Human Development, 1982;7:367-374
  35. Krueger, H. Effects of Hygiene Among the Uncircumcised. Journal of Family Practice, 1986;22:353-355
  36. Donovan, B. Male Circumcision & Common STDS in Developed Nation Setting. Genitourin Med, 1994;70:317-320
  37. Thompson, R. Routine Circumcision in the Newborn. Journal of Family Practice, 1990;31:189-196
  38. Altschul, M. Cultural Bias and the UTI Circumcision Controversy. Truth Seeker, July 1989;1:43-45
  39. McCracken, G. Options in Antimicrobial Mgmt. UTI in Infants-Children. Ped Infect Dis J, Aug 1989;8:552-555
  40. Lawler, F. Circumcision: Decision Analysis of its Medical Value. Family Medicine, 1991;23:587- 593
  41. Denniston, G. Unnecessary Circumcision. The Female Patient, July 1992;17:13-14
  42. Snyder, J. The Problem of Circumcision in America. Truth Seeker, July 1989:39-42
  43. Toubia, N. FGM: Responsibility of Reproductive Health Professionals. Intl J of Gyn & Obst, 1994;46:127-135
  44. Shield, JPH. Children’s Consent to Treatment. British Medical Journal, May 1994;308:1182-1183
  45. Garry, T. Circumcision: A Survey of Fees and Practices. OBG Management, October 1994:34-36
  46. Sorger, L. To ACOG: Stop Circumcisions. Ob.Gyn. News, November 1, 1994:8
  47. Warren, J. The Case Against Circumcision. British Journal of Sexual Medicine, September 1994;21:6-8
  48. Bigelow, J. Uncircumcising: Undoing Effects of Ancient Practice in Modern world. Mothering, Sumr, 1994:56-61
  49. Toubia, N. FGM: Responsibility of Reproductive Health Professionals. Intl J of Gyn & Obst, 1994;46:127-135
  50. Phillips, I. Advocacy: Rhetoric or Practice. Nursing BC, August 1994:38
  51. Milos, M. Circumcision: Male - Effects on Human Sexuality. Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia
  52. Phillips, I. Advocacy: Rhetoric or Practice. Nursing BC, August 1994:38
  53. Sperlich, B. Botched Circumcisions. American Journal of Nursing, June 1994;94:16
  54. Altschul, M. Circumcision Controversy. AFP-American Family Physician, March 1990;41:817-821
  55. Stein, M. Routine Circum.: Gap Between Contemporary Policy and Practice. J of Fam Pract, 1982;15:47-53

Circumcision Issues Page | Foreskin Restoration

last updated 4/29/03