Universal Client

Intel based Intranets

Alpha and PowerPC Intranets

Zero Maintenance Intranets

Internet Explorer and Netscape

Warp Versus NT


Visual Age for Java


Note: Deja.com ratings category: Operating Systems. This page has taken on special significance given the NetworkStation Series 2800.and the ThinkPad T20.   IBM's 1999 version of OS/2 Warp is specifically designed to support the Network Station Series 2800 thin clients and the "Thin and Light" T20 laptops. Many thought that the Network Stations would run JavaOS for Business. But IBM and SUN killed that OS in August of 1999 with IBM stating that "other general purpose operating systems" were more viable for what had been called a thin client.

Legacy notions of client and server do not apply well to the 1999 OS/2 Warp. Hence the terms network computing and network station. The 1999 OS/2 Warp, when implemented in its perhaps its pure form, treats network stations in a manner similar to a second processor on a single motherboard. All processors run a version, one can think of it as a clone, of the network computer to which they interact. The workload is balanced between all processors. This creates the intriguing possibility that multiple network stations connected together could rival super computers in capability and raw processing power.

In its transitional form, the 1999 OS/2 Warp provides Universal Client Access. Win95/98 and NT legacy clients work well with the 1999 OS/2 Warp and can be managed from the OS/2 network computer. In its pure form, OS/2 Warp is the universal client operating system for Intel 32 bit devices, completely replacing other Windows operating systems on 32 bit devices, ranging from phones and TV set top boxes to data warehouse multi-processors. OS/2 and Windows 2000 can be set up in a dual boot configuration on the same computer providing a useful way of bench marking the two operating systems. OS/2 should perform better than Windows 2000 on dual boot computers owing to Windows 2000's tooling for 64 bit processors. Windows 2000 has been recompiled to operate on 32 bit processors whereas 32 bit Intel processors are the designed-for platform of OS/2.

It is hard to believe that IBM Chairman and CEO Lou Gerstner, who coined the term "network computing", planned the vast improvements to OS/2 Warp that make it without a doubt the most super charged vehicle for the information super highway. Yet in the 25 August 1997 Infoworld, Ed Scannell, on page one, stated that the WorkSpace on Demand implementation of OS/2 "could give IBM significant technical advantages over rival Windows NT and Unix server architectures, which will not deliver this capability until the later half of 1998 at the earliest." Having yet to observe similar capability, Ed Scannell on page 26 of the May 1 2000 Infoworld, reports on the contradictory plans of the IBM e-Business group in Austin, Texas to release a new Warp client in November of 2000 while apparently intending to enable the porting of OS/2 applications, such as Workspace On Demand, to Windows 2000. Especially with the new "update pack" OS/2 client, there appears to be no ligitimate reason for enabling such ports. The new OS/2 client likely represents a new 10 year commitment by IBM to the "forgotten operating system".

IBM unfroze OS/2 Warp kernel for its 15 million plus users at the fall 1996 Comdex. The freeze was related to the use of OS/2 in network computing (previewed April 2 in San Francisco). Shortly before the 1997 Comdex, the former General Manager for OS/2, Mike Lawrie, took charge of the IBM Network Computing Software division to focus on Java initiatives, network infrastructure technologies and OS/2 products that support e-business. That brought together IBM's Java team, and the Networking Software (NS) and Personal Software Products (PSP) organizations under a strong supporter of  OS/2. Then in 1998 came Pat. See Pat. Pat wrote one program. It can run on all platforms. Pat used 100% Pure Java to write the program. Run, program run. In 1998 Patricia Sueltz took over the Java-OS/2 division at IBM. Sueltz is now in charge of the native office suite for OS/2 (Star Office) which is owned by the inventor of Java (Sun). Star Office replaces IBM's Lotus office suite on OS/2 computers and is free. Supporters of OS/2 at IBM have been given promotions. Conversely, those slow to advance network computing by adopting OS/2's native Java language, such as Lotus executives, have been reorganized out of their jobs. It is clear from the above that Lou Gerstner's vision is largely responsible for the 1999 edition of OS/2 Warp which is being marketed under the confusing name of Warp Server for e-business.

However, it is also likely that large OS/2 users (primarily financial institutions) drove IBM to cannibalize other operating system products for features that IBM marketing personal had likely reserved for 64 bit and non Intel based processors.  Because of IBM's copper technology, 32 bit Intel processors have become very fast, to 820 mhz. Large OS/2 users see no need whatsoever to switch to 64 bit and non Intel processors given network computing and the FASTER 32 bit Intel technology. Brokerage Merrill Lynch states that this year's launch of the IA-64, the next generation of major Intel chips, "will prove disappointing to investors who have high expectations for the first generation of that product." Microsoft is a heavy investor in IA-64 technology. This is reflected in its Windows 2000 operating system.

At the 3rd annual WarpStock, several IBM technologists appeared shell shocked at being driven to enhance OS/2 in 1999. First, IBM customers, in general, were not expected to push for any operating system upgrades until Y2K efforts had been completed. Second, the industry was trying to wean customers from 32 bit technology to technology not supported by OS/2. Third, porting for NT and likely AIX had been started for OS/2's Workspace On Demand. Those efforts may never see the light of day. It would be more cost effective to just add OS/2 to a network. Finally, the vast majority of IBMers at Warpstock had recently converted to NT workstations. They now were preparing to go back to the future with OS/2. If there were questions about OS/2's viability before the October 1999 Warpstock they were answered loudly by IBM's top management who sponsored the event. IBM's large customers are demanding that OS/2 be enhanced and supported for the long term. For a September 27 1999 Byte review see http://www.byte.com/column/BYT19990920S0002. Then review StarOffice. While being marketed as a multi-platform desktop environment and replacement for Microsoft Office, StarOffice is a killer application on OS/2 that will likely replace the already excellent Netscape and Notes browsers as well as Lotus Smartsuite, unless Java versions of those products can be introduced soon; Java is the native language of OS/2.

Especially with Java based products such as StarOffice, Warp is the industry's one true cross platform solution. IBM has announced specific enhancements for OS/2 Warp server designed to improve the performance of Windows 95 and Windows NT Clients. The "Network Neighborhood" enabler allows Windows 95 and Windows NT users to view OS/2 Warp Server resources as if they were OS/2 Warp clients. e-business Connectors include Net.data, eNetwork Host On-Demand R1, CICS Internet Gateway, CICS Gateway for Java, IMS Web (free), IMS TCP/IP OTMA Connection (free), IMS WWW Templates (free), IMS Client for Java (free), MQSeries Internet Gateway (free), MQSeries Client for Java (free) and portions of Domino.Connect. The S/390 Intel based Microprocessor Complex is only available on OS/2. This complex is used for year 2000 testing and code corrections. Though IBM has stated it has no official plans, because of work completed on a PowerPC port of OS/2, IBM's non Intel based Network Station thin clients are a potential extension on the client side for the Bluebird line. The Netfinity 3500 dual-processor server and Network Station 2800 already support OS/2. Some versions of the AS 400 support OS/2 on co-processors. Warp 4.1, introduced at workshops in 1997 is 2-processor SMP (Symmetric Multi Processing) enabled. IBM has stated that there are several different projects going on that will surface as add-ons or products for Warp 4. These include Digital Sound & Music Interface, Bamba, SelectSend RSVP multimedia, E-mail, NewsTicker, Java Beans, Networkstation Management, PersonPak, TablePakDomino Merchant & Domino Action, Lotus GO and other Lotus products, IBM Network Printer Manager for the World Wide Web-OS/2 Server, MQSeries PQEdit, MWAVE, Component Broker, Installshield for Java Smart Cards, Business Object Server, Single Sign-On, two-way video phone, a lightweight browser, a VRML browser, remote source code debugger, Acrobat Reader 3.0, ZOC Jikes, PKZIP, Netscape Communicator Visual Age Generator MidiWav, QuickFlick plugin for Netscape Navigator, a new dialer, PlusPack, Visual Bank, Java Aglet Workbench, golf and other games, USENET Newsreader, Visual Age WebRunner (an add-on toolkit developed by IBM's Taligent subsidiary), Linux EXT2-OS/2, Visual Prolog, and the Visual Age integrated (IBM calls it intelligent) development environment for BASIC, COBOL, Java, other 3GL languages, a 4GL and Smalltalk. A client software management tool similar to Novell's Zenworks called Swan Vision64 is available on OS/2. IBM may contractually agree to support OS/2 for 10 or more years. IBM ThinkPad 380s and newer models support OS/2.

The OS/2 business user community, which spends upwards of $30 billion each year on IBM computer products, and OS/2's Java orientation, has positioned Warp as the "Universal Client" for business intranets. The SOHO community met at October's 1997 Warpstock, the world's first user-sponsored show dedicated to OS/2 and related software. Donn Atkins, General Manager for OS/2, stated in November of 1997 that IBM Corporation will "continue to enhance the OS/2 product line during 1998. This involves additions to both the client and server product, an entirely new version of OS/2 Warp Server and also an update of WorkSpace On-Demand."

The following Prolog-Java applet may be of assistance in reading this rather lengthy page. The horizontal scroll bar can be used to speed up or slow down the presentation. You can move past the applet to read this page directly and gain access to links. Place your cursor over the music button for sound.

Intel based Intranets

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The role of the operating system as the client user interface is greatly diminished in an intranet. Hence, it is likely that many intranet users will be unaware that they run Warp.

Warp includes the 32 bit Netscape browser and is optimized (unlike NT Workstation) for Intel based machines. It also has more drivers available than NT, including Epsen drivers, LAN drivers, Zip drive drivers, Twain drivers, and especially more of the older drivers. This means it can run applications (including Java applications) faster than NT Workstation on more of the computers installed in the work place.

- Warp 4 with its voice type dictation is suitable for high end 586 PCs

- Warp 3 is suitable for low end 586 and 486/386 PCs and IBM support has been extended to May of the year 2000. According to Dataquest, a research firm in San Jose, California, 47% of the 1.8 billion application suites shipped in 1996 were Windows 3.x versions. Warp 3 can be loaded on top of Windows 3.x to upgrade this investment. This capability is particularly significant in that Windows 98 was delayed to match the feature. It is not possible to upgrade from Win 3.x to Windows 95

It is not usually possible to purchase an Intel PC without a Microsoft operating system installed. And it is not usually possible to return the operating system for a refund. This year consulting firms and the DoJ began pointing out that - on a percentage basis - the Microsoft OS price has increased - not decreased - as would be expected in a free market. Clearly the OEM arrangements regarding OS installation will have to change. When they do OS/2 will benefit. For example, it should be less expensive for IBM itself to load OS/2 on IBM brand Intel PCs. With the resident OS being 10 percent of the cost of a complete system, OEMs that compete with IBM would likely be at a disadvantage, all other things remaining the same. More OS/2 loaded IBM brand systems should be sold. There is also the strong likelihood that Win 3.x users will find Network Station Series 2800 the best upgrade solution when the time comes to replace hardware. The stations are fully capable of running Win 3.x applications under Warp.

Alpha and PowerPC Intranets

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Because Warp is not available on Alpha,  PowerPC, and Merced based machines, NT Workstation, Windows CE, and Unix (AIX or Nextstep) are used on those platforms. Warp can not run anywhere but the 1999 edition of Warp provides universal client access and management which  preserves investment in those machines and Warp is everywhere else.

Warp is in virtually all the new cash machines; it is embedded in palmtop computers that compete with Windows CE; and it is used in Network Computers (NCs). NCs are used where a PC is not needed, like point of sale situations, connections to PBX switches, new operating systems such as Rhapsody, and places currently using dumb terminals (about 66% of the total installed base of computing devices). The OS/2 NC is usable with as few as 6M of RAM and with 8M of RAM can boot to the OS/2 shell. It boots in about 30 seconds directly into Netscape.

According to Time magazine, Intel has been less than happy with Microsoft's PowerPC arrangements involving Windows CE. Time is predicting a split up of Wintel similar to the split up of Microsoft/IBM over OS/2. Intel management may suspect that Microsoft management views Intel 32 bit technology as a threat to Microsoft's business model which may rely on hardware obsolescence rather than on continuous improvements in software. Intel management is likely frustrated with Microsoft for not writing operating systems and software that take advantage of Intel 32 bit technology, which has been continually improved. In November of 1998 consumers also showed signs of frustration with hardware obsolescence giving even 8 bit processor technology new life at the expense of Windows CE capable game consoles.

In 1998, voice control, included in Warp 4, was recognized as an emerging technology. Voice interfaces for cars were introduced at several trade shows. Voice control of computerized devices and voice type became possible owing to 300 MHz and above Intel based CPUs. Voice Control can be viewed as a replacement for graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Unlike NT and Win95/98, OS/2 can and does operate without a GUI. Hence it is in a better position for use in applications that will rely on voice such as those centralized and operated through phone like devices or mobile devices like those in cars.

There can be little doubt that OS/2 will be showing up in automobiles, TV set boxes, and Internet phones, where Windows CE and NT been planned. Intel has aggressively improved 32 bit processor technology and OS/2 is optimized for that environment. Windows CE does not currently run on any Intel platforms.

Zero Maintenance Intranets

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Microsoft's traditional clients (NT and the DOS based Win95 and Win 3.x) are difficult to maintain. Because 3rd party software developers are required to ship new Microsoft system DLLs that overwrite older system DLLs, conflicts occur. 3rd party hardware device drivers cause similar problems. Administrators have discovered that if the software is loaded to application servers instead of to the client and if the clients are kept as thin as possible then there is less likelihood of a conflict.

With an intranet there is no conflict. Web page controls (either ActiveX or Java) and HTML are downloaded when used. Version control is automatic. If the software is Java, like Remagen, or if it is wrapped in Java (as is the Prolog-Java applet on this page), then Citrix protocol, or something similar, like SCO's Tarantella, for a thin traditional-client server architecture, may not be needed. Bluebird, Citrix, Windows Terminal, and Tarantella are described more fully below.

Bluebird (marketed as Workspace on Demand) administers PCs, Intel based Network Computers (NCs) and Net PC clients from an OS/2 Server. It is meant to be the most cost effective way to transform client/server systems into zero maintenance intranet style systems. During the November 1997 Comdex adds ran showing a transformation to a butterfly.

Citrix Systems Intelligent Console Architecture (ICA) protocol is licensed to Wyse, Tektronix, Sun Microsystems, Insignia Solutions, and Microsoft for remotely presenting Windows displays. Citrix claims that an 80286 CPU can adequately display Windows screens through ICA, and that a 20Kbps link is sufficient for the most common screens. Citrix was founded in 1989 by the former lead architect of OS/2, Edward Iacobucci, and its first products were for OS/2. The Windows Terminal, a new hardware design that Microsoft introduced to use the Windows CE operating system will use Citrix ICA. According to Infoworld (Page 1 November 17 1997 issue) "Microsoft is cobbling together thin-client Windows emulation by integrating its Windows Terminal server code named Hydra, with Citrix's new platform, code named Picasso on top of Windows NT Server 4.0" which will be released in early 1998. According to Michael Surkan of PC Week, "Without Citrix's Winframe to fall back on, Microsoft would have been hopelessly out of the running in the network computing era."

Hydra and "The WBT (Windows Based Terminal) is a second effort by Microsoft to deal with the challenge of NCs," said Howie Hunger, director of channels and marketing for IBM network computing. "We don't believe that the WBT as defined today goes far enough -- it only runs attached to a [Windows] NT server, and the world is bigger than just NT."

Mark Templeton, vice president of marketing at Citrix, in Fort Lauderdal, Fla, stated in the Infoworld article that WBT "includes anything that runs a Java virtual machine, runs Windows CE, or Windows 3.1." Hence Warp (the universal client) is a WBT but JavaPC, a product that essentially turns an Intel 486 personal computer into a network computer running Java on top of DOS, would not be.

Through ICA, an OS/2 computer or NC, as well as a WBT, can run Microsoft Office, back office and Win95 applications. Citrix is also used to give just the right number of application server connections to meet licensing requirements. [Note: this may be important in back office environments.] About 15 clients can concurrently access a single-CPU NT server through Citrix. The NT 4.0/Hydra Citrix single CPU can handle only 5 concurrent users per application owing to instability issues and many many Win3.1 and Win32 products will require a special version in order to operate on NT 4.0/Hydra.

SCO/Tarantella like WSO-D and unlike NT 4.0/Hydra is shipping. The Tarantella software will initially be available on SCO UnixWare and Sun Solaris, and will be ported next year to IBM AIX, HP-UX, Siemens Nixdorf Sinix, SCO OpenServer, and Windows NT, according to SCO. Representatives from Compaq Computer, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Netscape Communications, and Unisys provided endorsements for Tarantella, and SCO is working on various bundling and software compatibility partnerships with those companies and others. "We think it's a breakthrough product," says John Paul, senior VP of servers at Netscape. The cost is $245 per user for a 100-user license and $200 per user for a 500-user license. Tarantella lacks support for local printers and common data file systems, and the ability to cut and paste between applications from different systems. Tarantella has been endorsed by IBM for Unix servers.

The servers on an intranet can be almost any operating system (Win95, NT, Novell NetWare, UNIX, MVS/ESA, OS400, Tandem, Apple, and even OS/2). Often IBM transaction software, such as MQSeries and CICS is involved. Java is supported on the client and ActiveX on the application servers. [Note, ActiveX is not suitable on clients because it, unlike Java, does not run in a virtual machine and can crash or infect the client.] Microsoft'sJ/Direct , announced and then forgotten, and Com-based Scriplets are not a new ideas. For the purpose of this discussion, they are the same as OLE, COM, ActiveX or DirectX, which has been renamed DNA, are similar to Vibe (see below). According to Nicholas Peterly, editor in chief at NC World "there is no doubt that Microsoft intends to derail the platform independence of Java with J/Direct." But Java will remain on track in spite of Microsoft.

100% Pure Java, is a giant step towards zero-maintenance intranets because any client or server from any manufacturer may be used and network and CPU resources can be fully optimized. A Java object can be moved from server to server -- or to a client -- automatically through intelligent system administration software. ActiveX, on the other hand, should run only on a server and only a small number of servers support it.

The building blocks for creating desktop applications that run on the Internet and intranets are called Java Foundation Classes (JFCs). In July of 1997, IBM, Apple, Oracle, Corel, Borland and Sun endorsed the technology and will include it in key products. Netscape endorsed it shortly thereafter. Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is one of the newer classes. According to Bill Laser of Network Magazine ". all the major database vendors are providing or will provide native JDBC connectivity" and JDBC's design enables you to efficiently implement JDBC for those that do not (Microsoft) via the JDBC to ODBC bridge. JDBC is very important because it eliminates the need for a web (HTTP) server in an intranet. Borland has JDBC for all major DBMS products.

Because 56% of the costs of a client involve end-user support, a Java-based office suite that limits user access to functions appropriate for the user's job, rather than a full-featured Office97 style product, is desirable for zero-maintenance intranets.

Internet Explorer and Netscape

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OS/2 Warp was prominently showcased at the Winter Olympics. 5,000 OS/2 Warp clients were deployed. Decision makers were able to benchmark the Winter Olympics solution with a Unix and Windows NT solution at the 1998 World Cup. IBM claimed at the 1988 Winter Olympics that the best way to view the official web pages was through OS/2's Netscape 2.02 browser. The subsequent World Cup's NT laden web site paled in comparison. It was obvious to those bench marking technologies that Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser handled Java applets poorly and was therefore incapable of supporting advanced features like those demonstrated at the Winter Olympics. A Netscape 4.6 OS/2 browser is now available.

Internet Explorer is less suitable for business intranets than Netscape, not only because Microsoft is being sued by Sun regarding IE 4.0's use of Java and the Department of Justice is concerned about its use in Windows 98, but also because it is based on a traditional-style client concept instead of the 100% Pure Java zero-maintenance style of computing. Several consultants have documented that traditional-style clients cost from $43,000 to $51,000 per PC over a 5 year period. Hence the "free" Internet Explorer browser is far from cost less. Nonetheless, some job functions may require IE and IE can be used with Warp.

The Warp shell can be replaced, or work with the Win3.1 shell and Microsoft's, Sun's, or IBM's Virtual Machine and Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Explorer 4.0 for Windows 3.1 has been released and should run under Win-OS/2. A plug-in called Activator may be desirable. The Java Activator helps address the deficiencies Sun sees with the virtual machine in IE 4.0 and it also helps with "an older version of Netscape Navigator" that does not support the full JDK 1.1 specification. Internet Explorer is a product similar to the older Compuserve clients in that it is designed for a particular access provider (in this case Microsoft Network) and non standard script languages, rather than for general Internet use. Internet Explorer dos not appear to cache Java applets which makes it awkward for most Internet and intranet work.

In business intranets, Netscape is the generally accepted browser. It like IE are both free but unlike IE the source code for Netscape is also free. The OS/2 version of the Netscape browser is a Version 3.0 product with a Version 2.2 front end. Netscape's Communicator 4.0 product runs under Win-OS/2 today and is to be available in a Visual Age C++ version taking special advantage of an OS/2 Warp fix in the near future.

[Note: Win95, Win98, and NT Workstation, will not have a strong role in business intranets. These operating systems adhere to the traditional-client server model where zero-maintenance is not possible. At its Windows Platform Briefing in July, Phil Holden, Windows product manager at Microsoft, said that by the year 2000, Windows 98 will be replaced by Windows CE, whose kernel, by that time, will be in common with NT. Windows CE, currently used in handheld PCs, will be the front-end operating system for Microsoft's Windows Terminal on business intranets. Because Windows 3.1 runs on 74 percent of corporate PCs, according to Forrester Research, it is being used for intranets. (15 percent run Windows 95 and 4 percent run NT Workstation). Java adds multi-threading and long filenames to Win 3.x. These are two less reasons to upgrade to Win95, Win98 or NT workstation. A better upgrade is Warp, a version of which can be loaded on top of existing Win 3.x systems. This preserves the investment while adding a free Netscape browser. It also prepares the organization for zero-maintenance (Bluebird) style administration and NCs. For many people who use Win 3.11, the network computer is an attractive option. "We haven't done a good job to keep our products simple," said Jon DeVaan, vice president of the Microsoft desktop applications division. (PC Week July 28, 1997)"

The DoJ actions regarding Microsoft have had positive impacts for many information technology companies, OS/2, not just Netscape,  is featured prominently in the case. IBM's Vice President John Soyring testified that more than a billion dollars was spent developing and promoting OS/2 but that Microsoft business practices made it to impossible to gain market share. Microsoft purposefully introduced new application program interfaces at a pace that was impossible to match and refused to license them to IBM. This meant that OS/2 could not obtain its fair share of the operating system business after 1996. OS/2's small market share appears related to the monopolistic practices of Microsoft at issue in the Microsoft antitrust case. Any remedy to illegal practices may include OS/2 owing to Soyring's testimony. During the fall of 1998, John was one of twelve expert witnesses selected by the US Justice Department to testify in the United States vs. Microsoft anti-trust case.

Warp Versus NT

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Warp has been positioned for universal client access because it is an exceptionally strong solution for multi-server, multi-network, intranet environments. Shortly after the 1996 Comdex, system suppliers including Hewlett-Packard, Digital, IBM, and Compaq announced that they might not bundle NT Workstation with their hardware. Financial incentives from Microsoft were believed necessary. The following table was published in PC Week's March 19 1997 edition and was compiled by Forrester Research Inc. They are part of a study titled "NT Myth and Reality"

Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
NT units 300,000 465,000 651,000 814,000 936,000 1,076,000

The numbers represent cumulative NT sales for use as servers since the birth of NT, six years ago. Bill Gates, Chairperson of Microsoft, in early April, presented information from IDC showing that 700,000 NT server operating systems had been shipped sometime in 1996. Dataquest's March 31, 1997 Personal Computing Software Worldwide Market Analysis All Platform Operating System Sales History And Forecast Summary March 1997 showed approximately 6 million server and client units installed by the end of 1997 with over twice that projected for 1998. On June 2, 1997, Information Week published a concession from Mike Brown, Microsoft's chief financial officer, that the installed base of NT workstation was only 3 million. That put the total NT installed base at less than 4 million. Scott Winkler, vice president of Gartner Group Inc., in Stamford, Conn said at the time, "It could be a couple of years before Microsoft's [NT] platform becomes mainstream, if it does at all."

It takes 8 million copies of an operating system before developers begin to write applications specific to it. NT can be used to develop Win95 applications. However, because NT is based on a different architecture, it is best to develop Win95 applications on Win95 platforms so that coders can find bugs specific to the platform. To be fair, Microsoft noted that the rate of growth of NT was slowing. NT migrations can be tedious and costly. Developers were not be expected to start work specific to NT, in the absence of financial incentives from Microsoft, until 1999. But  NT faired poorly in 1999, likely worse than Microsoft could have imagined. In mid 1999, Microsoft announced that NT would be discontinued and that the company would extend the Windows line instead. Shortly thereafter Microsoft abandoned NT on Alpha processors, orphaning many who had staked careers on the technology. History will likely show that NT was the Edsel of the computing age. Microsoft wants NT users to replace the failed operating system with Windows 2000, which is priced similarly as OS/2 but contains much fewer features than OS/2.

OS/2 contributed to the death of NT with its Workspace on Demand (Bluebird) product which provides a much lower cost of ownership than traditional client server approaches based on NT and Windows 98. Workspace on Demand loads essentially a copy of OS/2 on to each workstation. The workstation itself does not require a resident operating system. This greatly reduces the effort and cost required to maintain a workstation. NT installations never approached the level of OS/2 installations. The official announcement of OS/2's "WorkSpace On Demand", code name Bluebird, was at the Java International Business Exposition in late August 1997. By early September 8,000 new OS/2 Warp servers and about 19,000 new OS/2 clients had been purchased in Latin America alone. The period between the fall Comdex shows was extremely positive for OS/2. Shortly after the November 1997 Comdex, Bluebird began shipping. And now NT has been discontinued. A special report further explains the demise of NT. OS/2 can not be viewed as the only cause but it was a strong contributor. OS/2's less obvious competitor, Unix and its variants also fared well against NT. All of the major Internet sites, with the exception of those controlled by Microsoft, make heavy use of Unix rather than NT servers. Apache far outpaced NT based web server solutions. Apache is available on OS/2. IBM used Apache and its OS/2-based Internet Connections server to track last year's chess match between Deep Blue and Gary Kasparov. Apache was found not suitable for NT in 1988. This also contributed to NT's decline.

NT Workstation faced the most competition from Bluebird. IBM demonstrated the product in St. Louis on May 11, 1997, over a month after the Dataquest analysis and began shipping it shortly after the November 1997 Comdex. Aimed at lowering users' cost of ownership, Bluebird includes a scaled-down version of OS/2 with Java and the Netscape or Lotus Notes browser. Server-based administration tools deliver appropriate drivers and perform remote initial program loads that let clients boot from the server for access to network applications and data. If a local HD exists, Bluebird makes use of it for swapping instead of swapping over the LAN to the server. The Bluebird identifies the client PC by the Users Login and password rather than a unique LAN adapter address. This enables work across the Internet while at an airport, hotel or other outside location. The bottom line is that Bluebird, unlike NT Workstation, is for thin clients or $800 computers, called Net PCs, as well as for NCs and PCs. It is about helping users better manage the environments they now have and protecting their investments.

The strategic intent of IBM's Bluebird is to lower the overall cost of PC ownership. Mike Lawrie, general manager of IBM's Personal Software Products Division states "A year or two ago we were just stymied about what to do about Windows support, there was just no way we could keep up with all the API changes Microsoft was making to Windows."

Perhaps in response to Bluebird, The Wall Street Journal reported in its May 12 1997 edition that Microsoft was moving beyond NT Workstation to Citrix licensing (Microsoft owned 6% of Citrix) and Windows-Based Terminals (WBT) as described above. This was the first indication that Microsoft would abandon NT Workstation in order to meet demands favoring Bluebird for cheaper and easier ways to manage computing resources. The majority of business users do not want the system architecture sacrificed in order to better support games and WebTV (that is what happened with NT 4.0). If you require DOS then, according to Microsoft, NT was probably not an option. NT lacked full support for DOS and power management laptop functions. Microsoft's Windows CE (for PowerPCs), further eroded the potential for NT Workstation sales. And now Microsoft's management is focused on Windows 2,000, Comcast, a cable network investment, WebTV, MSNBC ratings, the Department of Justice, and a Barney doll, rather than on supporting NT. Even though NT is dead,  IBM (probably be the largest reseller of NT) remains a strong supporter of NT as well as of OS/2. You can manage NT workstations from OS/2

According to David Moskowitz, President of PSI out of Pennsylvania, "It's a lot easier for an OS/2 developer to port an application to Windows NT than vice versa. IBM gives you the class libraries on multiple platforms. So, OS/2 developers who understand Visual Age can have, in effect, an application that runs on OS/2 and NT." OS/2 continues to sell well, at probably 4 to 5 million copies per year, according to Lotus, an IBM subsidiary.

France Telecom is in the process of purchasing 40,000 Warp client licenses and 36,000 Warp servers. During 1998, it became obvious that a PC would not be necessary in every home. Rather a phone like device or cable TV device can meet needs. Phone like devices do not require a resident operating system. Instead the OS and browser can be installed when the device is turned on in a manner similar to OS/2's Workspace on Demand. France Telcom's Mintel system is to be replaced in 1998 with this kind of technology. Since JavaOS has been abandoned, it is likely that OS/2 is being used. IBM's involvement in the project as well as AT&T's purchase of IBM's Global Network (Advantis) and Cable and Wireless's out source contracts with IBM indicate that OS/2 will have better than an even chance against Microsoft OS's on devices that do not have a resident system. The Turner Network (rival of Comcast and MSNBC) has already invested heavily in OS/2. We understand that United Parcel Service, US and overseas, uses OS/2.

Hong Kong Bank announced in March 1997 that OS/2 will be used in all their tellers and terminals all over the world. The success of OS/2 Warp in Hong Kong is impressive. Hong Kong Bank Holding Company (HSBC) Group will migrate the Group subsidiaries' global teller operations to OS/2 Warp. The move will encompass HSBC Group branches and subsidiaries in 50 countries. Buffalo NY's Marine Midland Bank (one of America's top 10 banks) is controlled by HSBC. (At least 100,000 new Warp licenses were to be purchased in 1997 for Hong Kong Bank.)

USA: CommunicationsWeek, on Page 9, May 19, 1997 confirmed that LaCaixa, a Barcelona Spain-based bank, signed a contract to install an OS/2-based NC system that would use about 15,000 workstations and 3,300 servers at 3,000 branch offices. Nations Bank, one of the largest financial services companies in the United States, purchased 5,000 Warp 3 clients and 600 Warp servers in 1997. They intended to purchase an additional 2,000 Warp clients and 300 servers for use with BankPro software from Argo. Credit Lyonnais of France purchased 5,000 Warp licenses in 1998. In South America 24 of the 25 banks had agreed to upgrade to Warp 4 (At least 200,000 Warp 4 licenses.) The Bank of China with 45,000 branch offices is reported to be close to selecting Warp for a three-tier solution (likely Bluebird). has informed IBM that they likely will purchase Bluebird and 40,000 Warp licensed NCs.

CERA Bank, Belgium's seventh largest financial institution, uses OS/2 and OS/2 web server to enable secure IMS transactions over Internet. CERA Bank's clientele can enter loan variables and calculate mortgages via the Internet and then order a loan packet. CERA will likely implement a network computing model throughout the enterprise using both OS/2 Warp clients and servers. Cera has over 3,000 employees and 950 branches.

According to OS2 Computing Magazine, the Bank of Montreal, one of the largest banks in Canada will be investing further in OS/2 by purchasing 14,000 new OS/2 workstations to be distributed in all 1,200 branches across Canada. OS/2 was chosen because of IBM's commitment to the business community in terms of support and future development of the operating system. We understand that Toronto Dominion Bank, Royal Bank of Canada, CIBC, Canada Trust, and the Alberta Treasury Branch are other Canadian Banks using OS/2. IBM scored a significant win for OS/2 in early September 1997 when Latin America's largest retail bank Banco do Brasil agreed to roll out 8,000 OS/2 Warp Servers and about 19,000 OS/2 clients across its 4,300 branch offices. They actually installed 25,000 licenses in 1997 and will be installing 11,500 in 1998 and 7,500 in 1999. Banco do Brasil is the worlds largest OS/2 account. They are currently porting MS-VisualBasic applications to Java for Home banking

Businesses that expand intranets to include financial services suppliers (the recently developed term for this is an extranet)  find Warp compelling because IBM plans to keep OS/2 strong in the financial services market. Visual Bank is an application that lets bank tellers access data via network computers and provides customer access to bank accounts over the Internet.

Additional OS/2 Warp installations are likely at Chevron Corporation. One Chevron subsidiary in the midst of a major reorganization nonetheless leveraged OS/2 Warp with Domino. The Domino application enabled anyone in the company to send a secure and anonymous message to the president for personal attention in real time. This experience may have lead to the use of OS/2 in Chevron's Lubricant's Group which is launching a Domino application to make its sales data interactively accessible to distributors over an extranet. The Direct Stock Market (DSM) uses OS/2 Warp and Domino to present financial statements and provide an online auction forum for small companies and potential investors via an extranet. Companies use any Web browser to post earnings reports, sales collateral, press releases and other information. There is no need for central collection, coordination, and posting with this approach. Parke-Davis, a drug manufacturer, replaced a Microsoft Project based application with OS/2 Warp and Domino. The application captures information and makes it immediately accessible to the company's nationwide 100 person sales force. With OS/2 Warp Domino, the Parke-Davis marketing staff monitors the activities of leading physicians and other potential advocates of their products. Information related to speaking frequency, public engagements, teaching forums at hospitals, and how well the physicians convey the brand message is entered via a common Web browser and stored in the central OS/2 Warp Domino database.

At Warpstock 1999 participants learned that a large OS/2 user, Delta, had largely failed to make Microsoft clients work and were sticking with OS/2. Korean Air Lines, in 1998 was standardizing on Microsoft client OS's. Korean Air Lines announced on December 21 that it has awarded a 10-year, $120 million outsourcing contract to IBM Global Services to run the bulk of its IT systems. It is now uncertain that the Microsoft client standard will be adopted at KAL. The deal struck with Microsoft has likely been undone owing to the outsourcing.

Transmitting 100% Pure Java Energy is the motto for the new OS/2 web-based magazine.News and Rumors about OS/2 are worth following.

Readers of CHIP Magazine (a well-known German computer magazine) elected OS/2 Warp 4 the best Software Product idea of 1996 (see 3/97 CeBIT issue). Infoworld readers elected Warp 4 the 1996 Product of the Year by such a wide margin (6 times the nearest competitor in three categories) that allegations of ballot stuffing were made. A 1997 year end survey supported the election. OS/2 has won over 70 industry awards. Warp 5 is in development. There are even rumors of a Warp 6. Warp 4 is continuously improved. The latest FixPak is 5.

The Warp customer base, contrary to popular opinion, is expanding. A version of Warp 3 has been preloaded on PC products in China for several years. It is likely that this version will be used for the planned ChinaEnterprise.com site. Many federal institutions use and are sticking with OS/2. The Smithsonian Institution considered Microsoft solutions but with more than 400 Warp 3 desktops serviced with OS/2 Warp Server's software distribution, Microsoft solutions were found lacking. The Air and Space Museum upgraded to Warp 4.0. The OPM (the Office of Personnel Management), the National Institutes of Health, the Navy, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Defense Information Systems Agency, and the Bureau of Land Management are but a few of the more well known agencies running OS/2. In June of 1997, The IBM Company had 176 Warp 4 migration projects underway. In 1999 the National Weather Service, who had largely failed with NT based efforts, reintroduced OS/2 at field offices to solve multitasking problems.

NT also faces stiff competition from Unix. IBM has hedged its bet on NT, not only with OS/2 but also by joining a growing list of PC server makers expanding licensing and marketing agreements for Unix with SCO Inc. SCO is more than 10% owned by Microsoft. This is significant in that -- for competitive bidding purposes in Washington state -- Microsoft and SCO are considered the be the same company. "Microsoft executives say pricing for the NT Enterprise Edition (clients plus server) product hasn't been finalized, and users say they must carefully evaluate the price/performance over Unix systems (IW, June 16 p 14)." According to Dan Kusnetsky, an analyst at International Data Corp., in Framington, Mass "You are starting to see a product differentiation strategy rolling out. Microsoft was in start-up mode [with NT] for a long time, where the point was 'We've got to grab a lot of market share.' You go for the low price to get into the door, then when you start to prove [NT's] value to people, you start to differentiate the pricing."

While IBM once publicly conceded the home desktop market to Windows, according to Bill Howard of PC Magazine: "Of the top PC vendors, IBM appears to have the clearest vision of home computing in the future: multiple home PCs, home control and automation, idiot-proof home networking -- even information appliances." It is possible that OS/2 -- because of Java and mobile computing -- has more than a small role in the home market as well as in business.


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The future of Java has never been rosier. In 1998 a federal court granted Sun's request for a preliminary injunction owing to Microsoft's on-its-face breach of a 5 year contract. With 3 years left on the contract, Microsoft is being forced by the court to support Java in ways that ensure Java's Write Once Run Anywhere (WORA) promise. Because OS/2 is the premiere Intel based OS for Java development and execution, Java developers choose OS/2 over Microsoft operating systems for development work. The award winning VAJ 2.0 ships with both OS/2 and Win95/NT versions. As Java applications replace current Windows only software, OS/2 will become more attractive. Because of Java's WORA, OS/2 will have more native application choices than ever before.

The first Java applets known to be generated with OS/2 come from Rechenzentrale Bayerischer Genossenschaften eG (RBG), head quartered in Munich. RBG is one of Germany's premier banking solution providers. RBG provides OS/2 network computing solutions to more than 650 banks in Germany that provide banking services to their clients. According to Frank Dzubeck President, Communication Network Architects, Inc. Washington, D.C. "Java gives it an advantage over Microsoft that could help IBM garner new customers beyond the traditional OS/2 Warp bailiwick in banking and financial shops."

IBM is putting more resources behind Java than Sun. In June of 1997, IBM had 2,500 Java developers either working on Java related projects or involved in training. In January 2000, those 2,500 had been deployed in 25 locations worldwide. The November 25 1996 OS/2 Netscape browser is IBM's second-generation Java-based product and the most recent browser is at level 6.2. IBM claims that OS/2 is and will continue to be the premier platform for Java world wide.

Warp is THE Java client. You DON'T need a browser; you can run Java applications like Corel Remagen Java thin client, directly from the desktop. OS/2 Bluebird is the first and currently the only way to implement zero-maintenance Java based intranets. You can also use OS/2 for an Apache Server. (IBM used Apache and its OS/2-based Internet Connections server to track the recent chess match between Deep Blue and Gary Kasparov.)

Frank Dzubeck, the president of Communication Network Architects, Inc. in Washington, D.C. states "Java gives it (OS/2) an advantage over Microsoft that could help IBM garner new customers beyond the traditional OS/2 Warp bailiwick in banking and financial shops."

IBM's Lawrie states "We want to really make OS/2 the premiere high-transaction execution environment for Java.... And the intent -- let's be very clear about it -- is to make OS/2 the premiere operating environment for Java."

Chris Pustowka, North American market manager for personal software products at IBM Canada states "Our strategy is to position OS/2 as the premier network computing platform and to continue enhancing its solid Internet/intranet technology."

On June 5, 1997 Donn Atkins of IBM stated "We looked at the Top 2000 customers of OS/2, world wide, and we found out that those customers gave the IBM company, in total, about 30 billion dollars of revenue a year." OS/2 customers hold an economic stick that ensures OS/2's continued development and Java support for many many years.

Platform-neutral office suite applications based on Java are expected and available from Oracle, Corel, IBM, Star Division, Sun and others . Star Division is a major provider of a high-end office software in Europe. Their StarOffice 4.0 for Java is a pure Java application in about 700 KB. Java and Java script replace Visual Basic and J script in these office suites. Java Script is also used in new IBM computer based training modules which present content through Netscape clients. According to Jim Koerner, marketing manager for Warp at IBM in Austin Texas, "The freedom Java gives a user is the ability to deploy an application on the most reliable and the most appropriate environment." That might include a palmtop computer, a network computer, a PC, a server, a cluster of NT servers, or a mainframe".

IBM is moving to a 100% pure Java model and to that end is working with OS/2 shops to transfer application portfolios to Java. Java will play an important role in the future of OS/2 development as well and OS/2 will play a roll in Java and NC development. The ultimate thin client, a smart card, can be OS/2 based.

Sun's Java v1.02 technology has been extended into all versions of Warp. This boosts performance by more than 60 percent, as measured by the CaffeineMark 2.5 performance benchmark, over Java v1.01. According to Edward F. Moltzen's July 14, 1997 article (which can be found by searching http://techweb.cmp.com/crn/issues/745/) "IBM software executives also were touting new performance benchmarks for the company's OS/2 products, saying the platform will allow for "many Java-based applications" to work as much as 30 percent faster under the CaffeineMark 2.5 benchmark- a method of measuring an application's speed and efficiency working in the Java environment." "We think we're making great progress in the performance arena," said Sheryl Winton, Java program manager for IBM's OS/2 group." IBM, in reshaping OS/2 Warp, is focusing heavily on making the platform attractive to developers working in the Java programming language." Currently the fastest workstation for running Java is SunSoft's Solaris (PC Week July, 14, 1997 p 96) OS/2 is the fastest Intel based workstation.

The Java 1.1 OS/2 SDK is generally available. In fact, a Java 1.1.4 SDK is now available for download. Java Beans and Java 1.1 support was scheduled for the forth quarter of 1997. In our opinion, the Java support on OS/2, has always been the most stable if not most current on the market. According to Christine Comaford of PC Week, all new code should be written in Java.

It remains to be seen how developers loyal to the popular third-party tools Visual Basic, PowerBuilder and Delphi will create internet/Intranet applications. The SuperCede tools are being ported for JavaSoft. SuperCede has a product that translates pure Java into native Intel code so you do not need a virtual machine. AlphaWorks has a similar Java to OS/2 compiler beta for FTP at their site. SuperCede Java Edition 2.0 will be available for free via the Internet and an enterprise version similar to VAJ's is to be developed.. The Visual Cafe tools have been repositioned with a Visual Cafe for Java and the Web Development Edition positioned to go for the 100% Pure Java label. IBM has gone a long way toward encouraging developers to write in Java using OS/2. The free IBM JDK can be downloaded from http://ncc.hursley.ibm.com/javainfo/dev_reg.html. The free Jikes Java compiler, which strictly adheres to the Java language and virtual machine specifications, can be downloaded from http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/formula/Jikes. Unlike the JDK compiler, Jikes is much faster, supports incremental compilation and can be used to generate makefiles.

Other OS/2 Java tools include NetRexx and Vibe. One of the most interesting web sites translates English to other languages has been fully tested on Netscape and IE with OS/2 Warp 4. The voice type dictation features of Warp 4 are attractive for this kind of universal translator.

Mainframes are replacing traditional web servers and traditional-client server via CICS to Java bridges. OS/2 platforms are economical for this kind of effort. An OS/390 card is added to the Warp workstation. Visual Age COBOL and Visual Age Java tools on the OS/2 machine coordinate with the mainframe for code sharing and management. Brian Jeffery, an analyst with International Technology Group, an IT consulting firm in Los Altos, California, says about 70 sites worldwide are porting Unix or NT applications to IBM OS/390-based mainframes. By fall, he estimates, as many as 300 sites will convert Oracle, SAP, and PeopleSoft projects to OS/390 and by 1998 there will be thousands of these conversions. IBM has licensed the Novell Directory Services (NDS) to enable a multiple platform directory infrastructure that includes OS/390-based mainframes. An applet may use NDS to provide a very robust set of authentication routines for either a user or an application This should make the Global Sign-On product more useful.

Visual Age for Java

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Visual Age for Java is a software tool kit based on JDK (Java Developer's Kit) 1.8 that fully utilizes Sun's Java Beans component object model, letting developers create and use Beans. Visual Age for Java also comes with team development functions, such as source-code check in/check out and version control, as well as support for IBM's middleware technology by offering Java interfaces to DB2, CICS, MQ, and IMS. The Visual Age for Java product is available today in OS/2, Win95, and NT versions. In mid 1999 Novell, as part of a cross licensing agreement involving NDS, obtained rights to include Websphere and Visual Age for Java 3.0 in the next release of its network operating system (Novell 5.1). This means that 20 million Novell shops will soon be Visual Age for Java shops. Visual Age for Java has received over 25 awards for its ease-of-use, degree of integration, and broad platform support. There really is no longer a need to review other Java tools. The vast portion of the installed Java tool base will have Visual Age for Java. This is certainly true for Intel 32-bit development environments. Visual Age for Java does not run on Sun workstations.

If you are investing in Java tools, you want professional tools like Visual Age for Java on stable platforms with strong vendor support. OS/2 fits the requirements. In fact, you need a third party (someone other than Microsoft, someone like IBM or Compaq) for NT and Win95 support. (According to Pat Fox, group product manager at Microsoft "We have no plans to discontinue technical support for Windows 3.11 to large corporate customers and end users" who purchase directly from Microsoft.) Microsoft's standard policy is that PC manufacturers are responsible for supporting the operating system they install. Decision makers ask: Why not avoid finger pointing by running Visual Age for OS/2 on an IBM PC, rather than Win95 or NT so that we can get support for the tools, the hardware, and the operating system, directly from the manufacturer?

Java is object oriented. Stephen McClure, director of object tools research at International Data Corp. (IDC), in Framingham, Mass, states that IBM's object oriented programming tools occupy a dominant market position. The IBM web development tools adhere to the 100% pure Java convention. This means that web site developers can avoid costly testing necessary to ensure that potentially unpure Java .class code executes on all computer platforms and devices. For commercial and Internet products, J++, and Visual Cafe represent testing problems that can be avoided by using Visual Age Java, or some other 100% Pure Java generating product. Microsoft's J++, has decision makers especially concerned given Bill Gates' recent comments. Mr. Gates called 100% Java the lowest common denominator on par with COBOL and C. The comparison is misleading. Neither COBOL nor C are object oriented, and Java, having the advantage of being developed after all other languages, represents the highest level of sophistication in software development. 100% Pure Java addresses integration and interface issues, two of the biggest cost items in the industry, and means that NCs, are not "Not Compatibles" as Mr. Gates has called them.

The IBM International Conference on Object Technology, June 17 - 20, 1997 in Orlando Florida focused on Visual Age for Java, a 100% Pure Java generating product discussed above. Visual Age for Java is part of a family of object oriented development tools for transactions, data & applications which can be summarized as follows:

Tools of Choice
Enterprise Access Team Enabled Visual Builder E/C/D/Br Class Libraries


Language of Choice
Java COBOL BASIC C++ SmallTalk RPG Generator


Platform of Choice
OS/2 Windows OS/390 OS/400 AIX Unix



Decision makers should ask "What style of computing should be supported." If the answer is traditional-client server (Win95, NT), then Visual Age tools make sense on Windows clients. If the answer is zero-administration Java style computing then Visual Age tools and the Universal Client (Warp) should be used. In the latter case, IBM has provided a free online course to help you get started. The Staten Island Java Group is another way to get started. A 486 66 PC with 16 megs, a 28.8 modem and 500,000 KB of free disk space was used to generate the sound capable Java buttons at the bottom of this page; a JDK Warp based Java developer starter system can be very inexpensive. The Visual Age for Java OS/2 product costs $98.00. 48 megs of RAM is recommended. There is a competitive upgrade program that lowers the cost to $30.


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Warp is not only the current universal client but, because Microsoft is not supporting 100% Pure Java and NCs and has a non standard SDK, this will be OS/2's role in the future. IBM's goal is to significantly update Warp in 1998 and is strongly supporting current and prior versions, helping purchasers retain their investments in Intel based 386, 486, and 586 PCs, and in their Warp, Windows 3.X, and DOS applications.

Warp has been positioned as the universal client for business intranets because business is predominantly Intel based and Warp (Not NT Workstation) is optimized for Intel platforms and 100% Pure Java applications. Win95 is not often considered as a client for intranets because it is considered obsolete (Win98 is to replace it) and it has been documented for quite some time that single 16 bit application may slow down all 32 bit applications. Win3.1 is a credible client for 16 bit intranets unless general protection faults are a problem in which case Warp can be added to gain a level of crash protection or perhaps a Bluebird Network Computer is an option. Warp Bluebird NCs are positioned to replace most Win 3.x and dumb terminals in business intranets. Warp 4 is positioned for power users who need voice dictation or a platform for Java development. Warp's position as the universal client for business intranets appears assured passed 2001 because of it's more than strong tie to Java, the object oriented language being used for almost all new development, and because of Bluebird, a version of Warp for zero-maintenance Java-based computing.

This page is based on the following:

PC Week, February 2, 1998 page 90 When Will Microsoft Grow UP?

PC Week, December 22, 1997 page 60 Zero Administration Kit Tops the Flops

PC Week, December 8, 1997 page 74 Has Microsoft Hit Its High-Water Mark?

PC Week, December 8, 1997 page 68 Microsoft's Hydra Is Just a Placeholder'

PC Week, December 8, 1997 page 95 Lowering TCO at Warp Speed

PC Week, July 28, 1997 page 8 No Go on Windows '00'

PC Week, August 25, 1997 page 89 IBM's Global Sign-On Eases Log-in Tedium

Infoworld, August 25, 1997 page 3 While you were out... IBM improved OS/2

Infoworld, August 25, 1997 page 1 OS/2 to offer custom Java desktops

PC Magazine, September 9, 1997 NBC: The New Bill Channel?

Network, July 1997 page 95 An Overview of JDBC

InformationWeek, June 2, 1997 page 52 and 56 Software Vendors

PC Week, July 14, 1997 page 1 Big Boost for Smart Cards

PC Week, July 14, 1997 page 6 NT 5 Pieces Begin Falling Into Place

Infoworld, July 14, 1997 page 65 Sun, Netscape release first version of JFC

Infoworld, July 14, 1997 page 24 Novell licenses NDS technology to IBM

Infoworld, July 14, 1997 page 29 Windows shift poses dilemma

InformationWeek, July 7, 1997 page 14 Mainframes Bounce Back

Infoworld, June 23, 1997 page 26 IBM's OS/2 Warp upgrade likely to ship one quarter early

PC Week, June 30, 1997 page 87 Compuserve's Web Feat

Infoworld, June 30, 1997 page 116 Attack of the incredible mutating Java is little more than bad science fiction

OS/2 Success Stories tape (may be accessed by phone until August 5, 1997 at 1-800-938-0944)

PC Week, June 9, 1997 page 1 Fort Apache

PC Week, June 2, 1997 page 41 Are PCs Nearing The End Of Orderly Evolution?

Windows Magazine, June 1997 page 43 Office 97 and the Upgrade Blues

Infoworld, May 19, 1997 page 10 IBM makes OS/2 versatile

PC Week, May 19, 1997 page 25 Microsoft, Citrix Ink Licensing Deal

PC Week, May 19, 1997 page 118 IBM Simplifies OS/2 and Windows NT sign-on

Infoworld, May 19, 1997 page 134 Is Microsoft building a partnership or giving Citrix a stay of execution?

PC Week, May 12, 1997 page 14 IBM Pushes Distributed Objects, OS/2 for NCs

PC Week, December 23/30, 1996 page 15 NT on PowerPC plans fizzle

PC Week, December 23/30, 1996 page 48 Advice From the Ghost of IT Yet to Come

Infoworld, May 12, 1997 page 3 Big Blue's strategy to show who's still boss

Infoworld, May 5, 1997 page 77 IBM gives users a Choice

The Wall Street Journal, May 12, 1997 page B6 Microsoft Takes Big Step in Strategy of PC Programs for Server Terminals

InfoWorld, May 5, 1997 page 6 OS/2 Blue Bird to aid management of PCs




PC Week, March 3, 1997 page 69 Users Still Want Power PC

PC Week, March 3, 1997 page 25 Lotus to Poor Java desktop Into NCs

http://www.systranet.com/java/ Java based translator

InfoWorld, March 31, 1997 page 55 Help us reclaim Readers' Choice Product of the Year Awards from OS/2 Zealots

PC Week, March 17, 1997 page 131 Sizing Up the Future


InfoWorld, February 24, 1997 page 3 Pull over, Sun; Big Blue's gonna drive

InfoWorld, February 24, 1997 page 106 Market Leaders of Network Computing

PC Week, February 17, 1997 page 21 Thin-Client OS/2 to Run Shells on NCs




Infoworld, December 2, 1996 page 38 IBM to quide upgraded OS/2 Warp into Web and NC zones

PC Week, January 6, 1997 page 54 Crystal Ball


Infoworld, January 6, 1997, page 6, Microsoft sticks to NT help plan

Inforworld, January 6, 1997, page 23, Client





PCWeek Volume 13 Number 47 November 25 1996 ThinkClient

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Mighetto & Associates - 1260 NE 69th St. Seattle, WA 98115 - (206) 525-1458 voice and fax

mighetto@eskimo.com - Internet email address

mighetto@compuserve.com - Internet email address or 72154,3467 from within Compuserve


Warp 4 provides a work around to the synchronous input queue (SIQ) issue that has been cited by Warp critics as a design flaw. From the System object within the OS/2 System folder click on User Interface and activate the check box labeled Asynchronous Focus. OS/2 then keeps a tiny watchdog program running that monitors the main message queue. If a message isn't handled in the length of time specified then OS/2 takes over. An SIQ problem is rare, even on slower 486-33 computers. It is not an operating system design issue as much as it is an application program issue. Newer programs -- and Java applications -- limit the use of the main message queue and avoid the problem completely. Most Warp users do not need the work around but someone may bring it up and this is one of the solutions. For more information, and other solutions, see page 366 of PC Magazine August 1997 or consult OS/2 Warp Survival Kit by Brian Proffit. Warp 3 provides a work around through fixpack 17.

Loading IE in a Win-OS/2 session allows 32 bit drivers, like network drivers, to operate at 32 bit speeds while also providing a level of crash protection unavailable to Win3.1 on its own. 16 bit Intel based intranets are built with Win 3.X and also with Warp's Win-OS2 (a Microsoft licensed and authorized version of Win 3.X). Win-OS/2 is supported by Microsoft for Exchange mail. Install it in a full screen Warp 3 Fixpack 17 or above WinOS/2 session. (Warp 4 may require an older version of winsock.dll.) If needed find Win32s 1.25 it at www.us.pc.ibm.com/files.html. The DOS_FILES setting for the Win-OS/2 session should be set to 255 for Win32 apps. The Internet Explorer browser should work just fine, even in a seamless session. Plenty of online help is available. (see http://www.aescon.com/bestofos2/help/). Internet Explorer is free.

Visual Prolog is one of the world's most powerful implementations of the Prolog-language, which combined with a powerful GUI-builder, an efficient compiler and a large collection of tools, offers a very nice environment for developing AI applications as well as traditional applications. Visual Prolog is the only alternative, if you want to develop in Prolog in native OS/2! You can easily port the applications! Windows 95 / NT / 3.1 and OS/2 are all supported, and you can switch freely between these platforms for GUI-based programs. You can also make portable textmode applications for DOS, SCO UNIX and LINUX. Conversion utilities help in converting resources between the different platforms. You can use Prolog's strengths in the Visual Prolog environment to do database programming, web support, object oriented programming, and much more: ODBC, Oracle, DB2, TCP/IP, FTP, HTTP, ISAPI, generation and use of DLLs and standard .OBJ files, an included Expert-system shell and Interpreter, domain checker and flow-analyzer, determinism checking and fail-detection, large on-line help and support for generation of help-files, resource import from other applications, graphical editors for cursors, bitmaps, dialogs, toolbars, CodeExperts that assist in many areas of GUI building, etc. The Internet is one of the hottest programming areas and Visual Prolog's strong Internet support makes it an ideal tool for creating intelligentWEB sites! Intelligent websites -expert systems attached to homepages,that can do automatic support and help customers choose products will play an increasing role. Visual Prolog can of course communicate with Java-applets, as illustrated in the examples. Later in autumn of 97, a free, time locked version of Visual Prolog will be available for download.

Netscape's new browser, code named Javagator, will be based on the core technology of HotJava, Sun's browser product.Javagator will replace HotJava as the standard browser shipped with all Sun products, including workstations, servers, JavaStations, and the Java Development Kit (JDK). Netscape plans to ship the Javagator browser in the first quarter of 1998.

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Universal Client