Darklands

The Fanatasy Role-Playing Game of Medieval Germany

 

 

Gothic Germany

 

MEDIEVAL BATTLE

 

Combat in the late Middle Ages was far more than a battering match between plate-armored lackwits that ended in mutual exhaustion. In this era personal armor reached its zenith, including not only plate armor, but also hand-to-hand weapons, as well as entirely new inventions such as the handgun.

The 15th Century was the heyday of "gothic" plate armor, suits of which still grace various armories and castles throughout Europe. The technology and craftsmanship demanded by true plate armor is quite astonishing.

Plate armor used steel rather than simple iron, but even then complete safety was an unobtainable goal. Tournament armor provided the most protection, but was too bulky and cumbersome for most fighting. "Battle" armor was lighter and simpler, so men could move, use weapons freely and fight all day, rather than collapsing from exhaustion and heat prostration after a few hours. However, even a full suit of "battle" plate armor was extremely expensive. No king or prince could afford to equip an entire army in it. Only noblemen or the rich, who personally owned war-horses and plate armor, brought them to war.

There were also advances in missile weapon technology. The now-traditional crossbow, refined and improved over the centuries, was joined by the handgun. Gunpowder artillery (of uncertain quality) existed in Europe during the 14th Century, but man-carried weapons such as the handgun were new in the 15th. Well-made handguns offered greater damage power and greater penetration over a longer range than any bow or crossbow. However, handguns were more expensive and slower to fire than crossbows, which in turn were slower than traditional bows.

In hand-to-hand (melee) combat, the dominant military concept of the era was the invention (or rediscovery) of the 16-man-deep "pike phalanx." Originally used by Alexander the Great's Macedonians in the 300s BC, pikes allowed trained infantry to reliably repulse any cavalry charge, no matter how heavily armed and armored the riders. This was because horses simply could not be trained to impale themselves upon the forest of pike-points. Pike infantry was also quite effective when it charged to the attack; some even considered it unstoppable except by better pikemen.

As a result, successful armies in the 1400s used a mixture of pikes and various missile or melee infantry to defeat the pikes. Cavalry still existed, but it was no longer the dominant military arm.

Another result of the growing usefulness of infantry was its dramatic effect on a feudal society already fractured by the Black Death. With infantry armies, any ambitious and wealthy lord could hire troops, spend a few months equipping and training them, and have a formidable fighting force. The knightly codes and feudal system quickly gave way to primitive military capitalism. Now money was the most important element in prosecuting war. This produced enterprising men who, for a fixed fee, offered to find, equip, train, and lead appropriate troops. These entrepreneurs were the great mercenary captains. Their "free companies" (because they operated free-lance), large and small, were an important part of many European armies.

Despite these changes, one thing remained the same. Castles and tower "keeps" dominated all military strategy. Primitive cannon only served to spur a new wave of fortress building and reinforcement, designed to withstand bombardment. Artillery technology was not quite advanced enough to batter down a well-built fortress (this would gradually change during the next two centuries). As a result, many wars that began with promising battlefield victories ended in long sieges, with no result beyond one or two fortresses changing hands. For example, the great English victory at Agincourt in 1415 did not end the Hundred Years War. In fact, the war had started in the 1330s and ended in the 1440s -- and then in a French victory. In this sense, military affairs were still medieval: a man behind strong walls was a strong man indeed.

 

The Nature of Battle

Despite the changes in military methods and equipment, personal combat in the 15th Century remained essentially eyeball-to-eyeball. Even missile troops were obliged to get close, to penetrate the armor of their targets. Combatants personally reached out to maim and kill.

To this end, a warrior concerned himself with how to hit his target, and what sort of damage he might inflict. Weapons and armor interacted in complex ways to produce various advantages and disadvantages. There was no one, universal weapon good in all situations.

HITTING THE TARGET: Hand-to-hand combat is a series of blows, where the striker and his opponent compare their weapon skills. Each must have sufficient strength to handle his/her weapon well, or their chance of hitting suffers. Conversely, a man with extraordinary strength can beat aside his opponent and have a superior chance of hitting. Shields, of course, can block incoming blows, reducing the chance of a hit.

In addition, a striker's abilities are reduced if he simultaneously fights additional opponents, while a target's weapon skill is lessened if he simultaneously faces other opponents. Bad visibility and/or impaired eyesight further reduces the chance of hitting.

When firing missiles, the skill of the firer is compared to the target's agility. Agility is reduced by encumbrance, so the weight carried by the target can be important. A man with more than a light load loses agility, a heavily-laden man has very little agility, and an overburdened man has virtually none. Shields are especially advantageous against missile fire because the direction of attack is more predictable than hand-to-hand strokes, even if the missile is too fast to see. Visibility also plays a large role in missile fire.

Despite all these considerations, battle is still a flurry of blows, moves and counter-moves that yield a proportion of hits and misses. Typically, a great advantage to one side means it hits frequently, while the disadvantaged side hits rarely. When considering tactics, remember that every fight is a gamble. Even the worst opponent may have an exceptionally lucky day and score a devastating hit!

DAMAGE: These risks are why warriors wore armor. Those who expected hand-to-hand fighting favored the heaviest armor they could use comfortably. Therefore even if the enemy scored a hit, the armor would absorb at least some and preferably all of the damage.

In Darklands, damage to strength represents real, physical wounds that take time to heal. Damage to endurance represents exhaustion, shock and general battering. In general, unless one is very unlucky or has very low endurance, endurance will reach zero before strength. Therefore, fighters tend to collapse before they die. Historically, many battles involving thousands of troops yielded only hundreds of dead, especially those battles which centered around face-to-face, hand-to-hand fighting.

Therefore, with each weapon, one must consider its armor-penetrating ability as well as its raw damage power. A very destructive weapon, such as a sword, might do relatively trivial damage if it just bounced off the armor. In Darklands these "non-penetrating" hits sometimes inflict a few points of endurance loss (which is easily regained later). They rarely inflict any strength loss (real wounds, which take time to heal), and if they do, the damage is rarely more than one point.

Varying quality affects the ability of armor to protect or weapons to penetrate. In Darklands, every ten points of quality difference yields one level change in penetration or protection.

In battle, non-penetrating hits only cause a small amount of endurance damage. Weapons that barely penetrate armor cause some strength damage, as well as higher endurance losses. Fully penetrating hits achieve the full damage potential of the weapon. Big, destructive weapons like halberds, two-handed swords, etc., can produce lots of damage. Even the strongest man is unlikely to survive more than two or three such blows.

Reduced endurance and strength do not affect agility, carrying ability or weapon use requirements during battle. However, once the fight is over, reduced abilities can cause problems. A character may be obliged to stop using certain weighty items, or else take the time to rest and regain strength.

 

Tactical Options

All tactical options apply to hand-to-hand (melee) combat. Missile firers cannot use them. However, tactical options may have some effect on missile targets.

BERSERK: A "berserk" fighter concentrates on making many powerful blows against the enemy and pays little attention to defending himself. The fighter's chance of hitting in hand-to-hand combat increases, as does the speed of his strikes. However, his vulnerability also increases, making it easier for opponents to hit him. This includes missile fire hits.

This tactic is especially useful for fighters of lesser skill, since otherwise they might be unable to score hits. Similarly, when a second or third warrior joins a fight in progress, a berserk attack can be useful until the victim decides to turn and face this new threat.

VULNERABLE SPOT: Here a fighter strikes much more slowly, but places those strikes carefully. If the strike hits, it lands on a less-protected spot with thinner armor. This increases the chance of penetration.

This tactic is best for skillful warriors whose weapons can't penetrate the enemy's armor. Here the extra damage achieved by hits that penetrate more than offsets the reduced number of attacks. However, less skillful warriors, who hit infrequently, take large gambles with this tactic. If they hit, they may do well. However, their chance of hitting could be extremely small.

PARRY: Here a fighter devotes most of his efforts to defending himself. He strikes infrequently, and with a reduced chance of hitting. However, the enemy has equal difficulty striking the fighter.

This tactic is useful when a fighter is outnumbered, or needs to temporarily hold off a powerful foe until help arrives. Basically, a parrying fighter uses weapon-handling skills to defect enemy blows. The greater the skill, the more effective the parries. Obviously, this tactic is useless against area-effect weapons such as dragon-flame, demon-fire, and other alchemical or magical attacks.

MISSILE TACTICS: There are not special tactics for missile fire. Simply hitting the target (which is usually moving) is hard enough! The best way to avoid enemy missile fire is to get behind trees, walls, etc., using them to screen your movements. Conversely, when firing at the enemy, it is wise to position yourself with lots of open ground between the firer and the target. Best of all, slow the enemy's approach with terrain and/or stone-tar potions.

Crossbows, arbalests and handguns all have long reloading times. Unless the enemy also prefers a long-range missile duel, you'll probably have time for just one shot before hand-to-hand fighting occurs.

It is possible to organize a party into two ranks, with the first fighting hand-to-hand while the second supports them with missile fire. However, this requires exceptionally skilled missile users. Only high-skill characters can "shoot past" friends accurately. Those with lesser skill will find their fire blocked by friends in front of them.

 

Movement and Position

In general, a party should try to position itself so the entire party fights the enemy one by one. This allows you to "divide and conquer." If this is impossible, the party might use terrain or potions to slow down, delay, or confuse at least some of the enemies, while it concentrates on the rest. In some cases, a well-armored and skillful character might step up and engage multiple enemies with "Parry" orders, allowing the rest of the party to concentrate on the few remaining enemies.

"FLEE" TACTICS: This option is the only way to "disengage" a character from combat. The character need not flee far. Note�that normal "Walk towards" orders often don't allow disengagement, since the automatic "fight anybody within range" prevents the character from walking away from an attacking enemy (the character stops and fights instead).

When actually disengaging the entire party from battle, a common tactic is to have one or two characters act as "rear guard." The others flee behind them while the pursuing enemies are stopped by the rear guard. Then the rear guard disengages, hopefully covered by missile fire from their more distant friends.

The "Flee" order is also useful when trying to maneuver in a crowded melee. Normal "Walk toward" moves don't work because the character instantly stops because enemies are so close. With a "Flee" move, a character can "edge past" an enemy far better.

GROUP MOVEMENT: This is convenient when exploring large areas, but useless in battle. As soon as battle threatens, change from group to individual orders.

On a larger scale, it is also dangerous to split the party. This invites one or two of the party to be assaulted by the full force of the enemy, before the rest can arrive. In effect, splitting the party allows the enemy to "divide and conquer" you.

 

Selecting Weapons

Each weapon has various advantages and disadvantages. In addition to the obvious ones relating to penetration, damage, and one hands or two, there are more subtle distinctions. For example, all weapons have a minimum skill level. If the fighter's skill is below that level, his combat abilities suffer dramatically. Weapons also have a minimum strength. In addition, some weapons have an upper strength threshold (usually between 27 and 35), beyond which the fighter has an extra advantage. Typically, the handier and lighter the weapon, the lower this threshold.

When compared to armor, a weapon that "matches" the armor just barely penetrates it. The weapon therefore penetrates all poorer armors, and cannot penetrate a better armor.

Finally, all weapons are rated for speed. The faster the weapon, the more blows a fighter can deliver, and therefore hits are more frequent.

 

Edged Weapons

This category includes the various swords and axes, designed to cut, slash, and slice into an opponent. These are the standard "all-purpose" weapons of the era, useful in almost all situations.

TWO-HANDED SWORD: This heavy, two-handed weapon is the most potent of all edged weapons. It requires skill (19+) and strength (21+). Its penetration matches brigandine or chainmail. The full damage effect is formidable.

LONGSWORD: This one-handed weapon is quick and handy. It requires good skill (18+) and reasonable strength (19+). Penetration matches scale armor and damage effects are large.

FALCHION: This heavy, chopping sword was a favorite sidearm of the 1300s. It requires less skill and strength, while achieving significant damage. However, its penetration only matches the best non-metal armors.

SHORTSWORD: This smaller, thrusting sword is a quick infighting weapon that requires moderate skill (16+) and little strength (13+). Its main advantage is penetration that matches chainmail and brigandine. However, it achieves only modest damage.

SMALL BLADES: These serve as common sidearms. PONIARDS have much better penetration (match chainmail and brigandine), while DAGGERS do a little more damage.

A character without any weapons is presumed to have a SMALL KNIFE. This is easy to handle, but not very powerful.

BATTLEAXE: This large, slow, two-handed weapon accomplishes maximum damage, but has poor penetration (it matches scale). It requires less skill and strength to wield than the two-handed sword, and usually is cheaper.

HAND AXE: This one-handed weapon is similar in capability to the falchion. However, it is easier to handle, slightly cheaper, and slightly less destructive.

FIELD AXE: This two-handed weapon is better suited to felling trees than combat. It barely penetrates cuirbouilli, does modest damage, and weighs more than the smaller swords and axes. Its sole advantage is cheapness and easy availability.

 

Impact Weapons

These weapons are designed to achieve superior penetration against strong armor, but require superior strength and/or skill. Their damage potential is less than edged weapons, but the importance of penetrating armor frequently made them preferred weapons in this century. For example, the great Hussite general Jan Ziska is traditionally portrayed carrying a military hammer.

GREAT HAMMER: This large, unwieldy, two-handed weapon can penetrate plate armor. However, it requires considerable skill (20+) and strength (24+), and does less damage than a longsword. It is also an uncommon weapon, made by specialists for specialists, at a high price.

GIANT CUDGEL: This extremely heavy, two-handed weapon matches plate armor with sheer force of impact. Most cudgels were wooden clubs reinforced with metal straps or bars. The weapon requires little skill (10+), great strength (27+), and is relatively cheap.

GIANT MACE OR MAUL: This two-handed weapon is cheaper and easier to handle (skill 9+, strength 25+) than the giant cudgel, but its penetration only matches chain and brigandine. It is a useful choice when giant cudgels are either unavailable or beyond a fighter's abilities.

MILITARY HAMMER: This one-handed sidearm looks like a small pick. The long point is good against plate (which it matches), while the flat head on the other side can be used like a mace. Reasonably fast and light (skill 12+, strength 15+), it is the favorite sidearm of many knights. Its main drawback is a poor damage potential.

MACE: This one-handed sidearm was extremely popular, but is now outmoded by plate armor, which it cannot penetrate. The mace produces more damage than the military hammer, but requires less skill (8+) and strength (14+), even though it weighs a bit more.

CLUB: This simple, one-handed weapon could be almost anything, including a small log or a heavy stick. Like a mace, it inflicts damage by concussion, but its penetration only matches scale armor. Furthermore, the damage is but slightly superior to a small blade. Fortunately, minimum skill (4+) and strength(16+) are both low.

 

Flails

These weapons have flexible ends, allowing the user to reach up and over obstacles like shields or parrying weapons. Flails are slower weapons, but can be very useful if the enemy relies mainly on large shields for protection.

TWO-HANDED FLAIL: This large, slow weapon is based on peasant tools used to thresh grain. Bohemian Hussite rebels favored this weapon. The big flail is powerful enough to match chain or brigandine, achieves good damage, and requires only modest (20+) strength. However, it demands some skill (18+), and is quite heavy.

MILITARY FLAIL: This familiar "ball and chain" weapon, inaccurately termed a "morning star," only matches scale, but does as much damage as a longsword. Although fearsome in appearance, its utility in battle is limited.

 

Polearms

These weapons all have a long handle, ending with a blade, point, or blunt end, as appropriate. All but the quarterstaff are fairly slow and heavy weapons, but make up for it with penetration and damage.

PIKE: This exceptionally long (18-21') and heavy (about 17 lbs.) two-handed weapon looks like an extremely long spear. It is a popular infantry weapon for stopping cavalry charges. However, to be effective it must be used in "blocks" 8 to 16 ranks deep. Its penetration matches chain or brigandine. Its cheapness is a great attraction to nobles forming armies, despite the need for considerable skill (21+).

LONG SPEAR: This one-handed weapon can match scale armor, is easy to use (skill 12+, strength 20+), achieves reasonable damage, and is cheap. However, it is fairly heavy, and somewhat slow.

SHORT SPEAR: This weapon is a "junior" version of the long spear, lighter and easier to handle in all respects (skill 8+, strength 17+), but without sacrificing penetration. Of course, damage is somewhat less. It is among the cheapest of all weapons.

HALBERD: This two-handed weapon has a blade with various points and/or hooks on the end, depending on the specific design. Although heavy and slow, its penetration matches chain or brigandine, and it does fearsome damage. It requires significant skill (19+), good strength (23+), and is fairly expensive.

QUARTERSTAFF: This cheap, easily-fashioned weapon is no more than a 6' length of smooth wood. Its miserable penetration barely matches ordinary leather, but it is very fast and easy to handle (skill 10+, strength 16+). Should penetration occur, damage potential is almost equal to a sword. However, it is a two-handed weapon, preventing the use of a shield.

 

Thrown Weapons

All these are one-handed weapons. Historians still debate how much they were used; for example, some accounts of Agincourt (1415) describe the English men-at-arms throwing axes at the French just before the melee was joined, while others insist that it never happened.

THROWING AXE: This is the heaviest throwing weapon available, with damage power equivalent to a sword if it connects. Moderate skill (19+) is needed, and thrown penetration only matches cuirbouilli or studded leather.

JAVELIN: This light spear, about 3' long, is easy to handle (skill�10+), but rather bulky. Damage power is superior to an arrow, while penetration matches scale armor.

DART: Military darts are mostly or all metal, with a lead weight on the shaft for balance and accuracy. Popular in the Balkans and beyond, darts are easily carried and require modest skill (11+), yet their penetration matches scale armor. Damage potential is also modest: slightly less than an arrow. In Germany darts are rare and somewhat costly.

THROWING KNIFE: This lightweight weapon can penetrate non-metal armor, but does little damage. Exceptional skill (30+) is required.

 

Bows

Bows are the fastest-firing long-range missile weapons available, and quite popular throughout Europe. However, bows are two-handed weapons, and the damage potential of an arrow is modest. Men frequently survived multiple arrow hits, especially if armor reduced the force of impact.

LONGBOW: Made exclusively in England, longbows were imported to Germany across the North Sea. Still, these weapons are rare and costly, especially because the bow can penetrate all armor. This powerful weapon requires both skill (25+) and strength (20+).

COMPOSITE BOW: This Asiatic weapon is the rarest, most expensive, and most valuable of all bows. Some Polish and Hungarian cavalry use these weapons. Great skill (30+) and good strength (22+) are needed. Penetration and damage is equal to a longbow, but the overall weight and bulk is less -- because it is designed for cavalry use. Construction methods are outrageously complex: Central Asian bowyers sometimes needed ten or twenty years to correctly "cure" the materials in such a bow!

SHORT BOW: This is the ordinary, traditional "self" bow used throughout Europe and beyond. It requires moderate skill (20+) and modest strength (16+). Although unable to penetrate plate armor, it is fairly effective against anything else. Damage potential is the same as the other bows, but its cost and weight are less.

 

Mechanical Missiles

These devices fire missiles using mechanical or chemical power. All of them require both hands. Gunpowder weapons were first seen in Europe during the 14th Century, and then only as castle-smashing artillery. Man-portable firearms are new in the 15th Century, but by the 1460s and 70s many armies had large forces of handgunners.

CROSSBOW: This is the standard mechanical bow used in Europe for centuries. Cocking mechanisms varied from belthook-and-stirrup to a simple mechanical lever. Crossbows can penetrate any armor, do as much damage as a bow arrow, are easy to operate (skill 14+) and require modest strength (18+). However, they are weighty and reload far more slowly than a normal bow.

ARBALEST: This is a much heavier version of the crossbow that uses even slower reloading mechanisms, such as hand cranks. It has superior penetrating power, does a bit more damage, and only requires a little more strength and skill than a normal crossbow. Its great disadvantage is a huge weight (almost 20 pounds), not to mention a fairly high price.

IRON HANDGUN: This simple handgun is typical of early, crude firearms. It barely matches plate armor, does more damage than an arbalest, and requires less skill (12+) and strength (17+). Unfortunately it is weighty (14 pounds), and reloads more slowly than any other weapon.

BRASS HANDGUN: This is typical of the high-quality handguns available from the best craftsmen in Europe. Its penetrating power matches an arbalest, damage is superior to either crossbow or arbalest, and both skill and strength requirements are a bit less than the iron handgun. It also weighs less. Unfortunately, it is very expensive, and not especially easy to find.

 

Armor

In the late Middle Ages, two major types of armor existed: tournament and battle armor. Many museums and simple books about armor fail to distinguish between these types. This leads simplistic writers to peculiar conclusions. For example, many people think tournament armor was used in battle, and therefore can't imagine how medieval knights managed to move, much less fight.

Tournament (or jousting) armor was designed purely for this sport. It was intended to fully protect the wearer from injury. The armor was thick and heavy, with poor visibility and limited motion. Such qualities were acceptable for tournaments, but almost useless on a battlefield. This was especially true when battles were not decided by the crash of heavy cavalry charges, one against another. On the other hand, the use of extremely expensive, specialized tournament armor helped restrict that sport to the nobility and the very rich.

The other armor type, battle armor, is the norm in Darklands. This "every day" armor was worn by troops from the guardhouse to the battlefield. It was a compromise between strength, flexibility, and weight. Many times battle armor was covered with cloth; other times men wore tabards, cloaks or robes on top, to reduce maintenance and moderate temperature effects (armor can get very hot in the summer and quite cold in the winter). Almost all metal armor was worn over a padded, quilted "arming" garment that reduced chafing, as well as absorbing the impact of blows on the metal.

Of course, the lines between the two armor types can blur. For example, some knights used some (but not all) of their tournament armor in battle, and vice versa.

In Darklands there are five basic levels of armor protection. Ranked from best to worst, these are (1) plate, (2) brigandine and chainmail, (3) scale, (4) cuirbouilli and studded leather, (5) leather and padded armor.

PLATE ARMOR: This is the finest armor available. It is made of articulated steel plates that move with the wearer, yet keep the body completely covered. It is stronger than any other types, but also quite heavy.

In the 15th Century many well-equipped soldiers only used plate armor on their vitals (head, torso, and sometimes the hips). They then used lighter armor on their arms and legs.

BRIGANDINE: This is a "coat of plates" sandwiched between two layers of leather. Easier to assemble than true plate armor, it provides almost as much protection. Since the basic materials include numerous steel plates, the cost is high. Brigandine armor covering the vitals is common among infantry forces throughout Europe in the later 15th Century.

CHAINMAIL: This is the old, traditional metal armor of European warriors. Made of small, interlocking metal circles, it produces a flexible but strong garment. Chain skirts, leggings, shirts, etc. are all common. "Chain" provides as much protection as brigandine, with less weight, but at a slightly higher price.

SCALE: This is the cheapest metal armor still in common use, popular mainly in Eastern Europe. Scale armor is made of small metal scales that overlap. The overlap conceals laces that hold each scale to a leather backing. Scale armor gives poor protection against upward-thrusting blows, which slide between the scales. Therefore scale armor provides less protection than brigandine or chainmail, but it is significantly cheaper.

CUIRBOUILLI: The strongest non-metal armor available, cuirbouilli is stiff leather molded into curved sections, then repeatedly dipped in boiling wax. The result is so hard and stiff that it is worn in plates, buckled on like metal. However, cuirbouilli provides less protection than any metal armor. Of course, it also weights much less: a complete suit of metal armor might be 45 to 60 pounds, while complete cuirbouilli coverage is only one-third to one-quarter of that. The cost is also much less than metal armor.

STUDDED LEATHER: This armor is stiff but flexible leather reinforced with metal rivets, coin-sized "plates," and/or metal rings. The combination provides protection equivalent to cuirbouilli, but with fewer manufacturing problems (and thus a lower cost). On the negative side, studded leather weighs a little more than cuirbouilli.

LEATHER: This ancient form of armor is used by those who value speed and agility more than protection, or those who can't afford more! Many armies saved armor costs by giving infantrymen metal armor for vitals and leather armor for limbs. Basic leather armor provides less protection than cuirbouilli or studded leather, but weighs and costs much less.

PADDED: Also termed "quilted" armor, this protection has two layers of cloth, with rags and cloth scraps sandwiched between. The layers are then cross-stitched in a grid-pattern. This means a slash or puncture only empties the stuffing in the pocket affected, rather than the entire garment. This armor provides protection similar to basic leather, weighs more, and costs less.

 

Shields

Shields are only useful when using one-handed weapons. In this era all shields had a solid metal rim with a face of wood or light metal covered by cloth or leather. The primary value of a shield is in defending against missiles. Its protection value in hand-to-hand combat is secondary. As the penetrating power of missiles increased, the ability of shields to stop them waned. This is why most armies stopped using shields entirely in the next century: they were ineffective against the successors to the handgun.

SMALL SHIELDS only weigh five pounds, and provide the least additional protection.

MEDIUM SHIELDS weigh ten pounds, but provide significantly more protection.

LARGE SHIELDS weigh fifteen pounds, and provide the most protection.

 

Death

A character dies when his or her strength reaches zero (0). There is no way to restore characters from death. To avoid this final end, either increase a character's strength or restore lost strength through potions and/or the saints. Even if strength is only temporarily increased, when the potion or miracle "wears off" strength will not drop below one (1).

In long, extended battles and explorations, if your party simply rests for a while (does nothing), you may regain a little endurance. In most cases, though, endurance cannot be regained until you leave the action.

 

 

Copyright © 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995 by MicroProse Software, Inc. All rights reserved.