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Our Daily Bleed...

The Daily Bleed Calendar, anarchism, radical, anarchy archives, Timeline, Chronology, Anarchist, libertarian, anarchiste, anarquista, on this day of recovered history memory, April 17: Clifford Harper, Guy Debord, Asger Jorn, Benjamin Tucker, Ben Reitman, Emma Goldman, Eugène Bizeau, Arthur Arnould"

... a savage servility

   slides by on grease.

             — Robert Lowell

Benjamin Tucker

Publisher, theorist of American Individualist anarchism.


618 -- Scotland: Fifty-three monks are burned alive in their refectory by a gang of armed women seeking revenge for being cheated out of their pasture rights, on the island of Eigg.
Source: 'Calendar Riots'

1414 -- Isabelle la Boulangere fined for performing an act of prostitution on this day (it was Easter Sunday.) Inspires Playboy Bunnies.

1421 -- The river Dort floods, 100,000 people drown.

1492 -- Spain: Ferdinand & Isabella sign the agreement to finance & set the terms of Columbus's voyage to the Indies. The document is known as the Capitulations of Santa Fe. Establishes that Columbus would become the viceroy & governor of all discovered land & rights to 10% of all assets brought to Spain, among other terms.

1521 -- Martin Luther is excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.

1629 -- New Old World: First horses imported to English colonies, Massachusetts Bay.

1680 -- New Old World: Death of Kateri Tekakwitha, first Indian Roman Catholic nun, from self-inflicted penitential wounds. In 1980, 300 years later, she is the first American Indian to be beatified by Roman Catholic church.

1695 -- Mexico: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, outstanding lyric poet, dies in México City. Entered a convent so she could dedicate her life to learning & assembled a 4,000 volume library.

1790 -- American polymath, revolutionist Ben Franklin dies, 84. On his deathbed, asked by his daughter to shift positions, replies, "A dying man can do nothing easy." 20,000 people attend his funeral.
Benjamin Franklin: A lie stands on one leg, truth on two legs

1802 -- British scientist Erasmus Darwin dies.

1824 -- Slavery abolished in Central America.

1833 -- France: Arthur Arnould lives, Dieuze (the Moselle). Journalist, novelist, member of First International & the Paris Commune, friend of Michael Bakunin. Collaborated on the "Bulletin of the Jura Federation." Arnould wrote L'Etat et la Révolution (1877), a history of the Paris Commune, & numerous novels as A. Matthey. See the Anarchist Encyclopedia page,

Benjamin Tucker
1854 -- US: Benjamin Tucker lives, South Dartmouth, Massachusetts.


"I have never claimed that liberty will bring perfection, only that its results are vastly more preferable to those that follow authority."

American individualist anarchist, publisher, journalist, propagandist, theorist.

Influenced by Ezra Heywood, William Greene, Stephen Pearl Andrews, Lysander Spooner, & Josiah Warren.

Benjamin Tucker "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, these three; but the greatest of these is Liberty. Formerly the price of Liberty was eternal vigilance, but now it can be had for fifty cents a year."

So wrote Benjamin Ricketson Tucker (1854-1939) on the first page of the first issue of "Liberty," August 6, 1881.

For the next 25 years "Liberty" serves as a voice of individualist anarchism, opposed to the major anarchist communist & anarchist syndicalist wings of the movement.

"Liberty", until recently was the longest running anarchist journal in American history (the Detroit publication "The Fifth Estate" is now past its 30th year. Tucker converted Jo Labadie, whose personal papers form the basis of the famed Labadie Collection at the University of Michigan, to anarchism.

1860 -- Burning in Hell?: US: First ordinance passed requiring fire escapes on tenements.

Constantine Cavafy
1863 -- Greek poet Constantine Cavafy lives (1863-1933), Alexandria, Egypt. Published only about 200 poems, well-known to English readers from the many references to his work in Lawrence Durrell's Alexandria Quartet.

Daily Bleed patron Saint, 2003-05
Gay Greek, poet of spare, ironic subtlety.

1864 -- US: Bread & Circuses?: Bread riots in Savannah, Georgia.

 Mary Surratt
1865 -- Mary Surratt is arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination.

Mary Surratt, boardinghouse owner, was charged with conspiring with Booth, "keeping the nest that hatched the egg," & running errands for Booth that facilitated his escape. It was alleged that Booth used her boardinghouse to meet with his co-conspirators. Mrs. Surratt was found guilty & was hanged on July 7, 1865.

1885 -- Karen Blixen, aka Isak Dinesen & Pierre Andrezel, lives (1885-1962), Rungsted, Denmark.

A writer whose stories incorporate themes of Eros, supernaturalism & dreams. Her years in Kenya are depicted in Out of Africa, adapted as an Oscar-winning film directed by Sydney Pollack. She wrote her books in English & rewrote them in Danish. In her late years, Blixen dressed some times as commedia dell'arte character Pierrot.

1894 -- US: Opening of Lowell astronomical observatory in Arizona, first in US.

1894 -- Beloved & Respected Comrade Soviet Leader "We will bury you" Nikita S. Khrushchev lives.

Khrushchev himself told British Laborite Aneurin Bevan the story of how it had been before.

Presidium members, said Khrushchev, drew up a plan to decentralize the economy after World War II, & Voznesensky, the chief economic planner, took it to Stalin.

"Voznesensky came back," said Khrushchev, "& told them Stalin had denounced him as a traitor to socialism. This made them angry because Voznesensky had merely done what they had told him to do. They went to Stalin next day & told him this: that it was their collective plan, not Voznesensky's; that he had been unfair to Voznesensky & ought to apologize to him.

"I can't," said Stalin. "He was shot this morning.""

1897 -- Thornton Wilder lives (1897-1975), Madison, Wisconsin. American writer/playwright, best known for the Pulitzer Prize awarded play Our Town & his breakthrough novel The Bridge of San Luis Rey. He declares on his 70th birthday, "I was an old man when I was 12; & now I am an old man, & it's splendid."

1905 -- US: Supreme Court holds that a maximum hours law for New York bakery workers is unconstitutional under the due process clause of the 14th amendment.

1908 -- EG, anarchist feminist   US: Accompanied by Dr. Ben Reitman, Emma Goldman arrives in Frisco, where police notify her that anarchist propaganda cannot be circulated in the "Land of the Free."

1912 -- Russia: Miners are on strike (Apr.04.OS) at the Lena gold fields in eastern Siberia to protest their abominable working & living conditions.

The Lena strike leaders are arrested [early AM]; the Lena Massacre: troops fire on a peaceful strikers’ march, killing over 200 [late afternoon].

Interior Minister Makarov limply comments: “It has always been so; it will always be so.”

Labor militancy is reviving with accelerating strikes into summer. This tragedy revived a movement that had been crushed with the failure of the 1905 revolution & was a flashpoint for the labor unrest prior to WWI. It includes Peter Kropotkin, who tries to publicize the massacre of 270 workers at the Lena gold mines, but this activity is cut short by World War I.

Details, [Kropotkin's earlier experiences at Lena]

1914 -- England: Yarmouth pier hit by a suffragette bomb.
Source: 'Calendar Riots'

1919 -- Switzerland: "l'Ecole Ferrer" school closes this month [I don't have the exact day — ed.]

Founded in Lausanne by the anarchist pediatrist Jean Wintsch & Émile Durand, inspired by "l'Escuela moderna" of Francisco Ferrer. The school accommodated about 30 boys & girls. It was supported by about 15 trade unions & with personal donations (especially from Russian refugees). It was also favorably received by "Réveil" & the libertarian press in general. In 1911, Paul Robin bequeathed to the school most of the teaching equipment used at Cempuis.

Unfortunately WWI & the dissension following publication of the "Proclamation of the 16" (Proclamation of Seize/Manifesto of the Sixteen), which Wintsch was a signatory to, resulted in his withdrawal from activism & the school's closure in April 1919.

See Jean Wintsch, Une Révocation, une école (Lausanne: Société de l’école Ferrer, 1910)
1915 Se edita en Genève (Suiza) la revista “Libre Fédération” dirigida por Jean Wintsch. Hasta 1919.

Wintsch, Jean Period : 1903-1914 Total Size : 0.03 m. Finding Aid : List
Biographical/historical note : Born in Odessa 1880, died in Lausanne 1943; physician, anarchist; coeditor of Le Réveil/Il Risveglio Geneva, one of the founders of the Ferrer School in Lausanne & editor of its Bulletin 1913-1921; one of the signatories of the 'Manifeste des Seize' in 1915 which estranged him from the Réveil group & most of the Swiss anarchists; one of the editors of La Libre Fédération 1915-1919, & with his wife, of the Bulletin russe Lausanne 1919-1920; contributed in the 1920s & 1930s mainly to Plus Loin & Jean Grave's Publications de 'La Révolte' et 'Temps Nouveaux'. Contents : Letters from Peter Kropotkin relating to Le Réveil, to Wintsch 1912, Luigi Bertoni 1911-1914 & Georges Herzig 1903-1913; a letter from Vladimir Federoff-Zabrejneff to Herzig 1909.

Emma Goldman
1921 -- EG, anarchist feminist   US: "The New York Times" publishes excerpts from a letter from Emma Goldman to her niece Stella Ballantine disclaiming December 1920 reports by American businessman Washington B. Vanderlip that Emma had requested he use his influence to gain her return to the US (from which she was deported & banned).

1932 -- France: Patrick Geddes (1854-1932) dies in Montpellier. Scottish biologist, botanist & sociologist who was one of the modern founders of modern town & regional planning. He strongly influenced American urban theorist Lewis Mumford, as well as many other 20th century thinkers.

1953 -- US: Baseball's Mickey Mantle hits a 565' (172 m) home run in Washington DC's Griffith Stadium.

1954 -- US: Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader President Ike Eisenhower issues memo threatening uses of atomic bomb against Red China.

1959 -- US: 22 arrested in Times Square for refusing to take part in civil defense drill, New York City.

1959 --

"Ein Kultureller Putsch während Ihr schlaft!"

Germany: SI dingbat 17 to 20 1959 3rd SI conference in Munich. Participants: Armando, Constant, G.-E. Debord, Erwin Eisch, Heinz Höfl, Asger Jorn, Giors Melanotte, Har Oudejans, Giuseppe Pinot Gallizio, Heimrad Prem, Gretel Stadler, Helmut Sturm, Maurice Wyckaert, Hans-Peter Zimmer.

Foundation in Amsterdam of the Bureau for Investigation for Unitary Urbanism. Director: Constant.

"Potlatch" becomes a bulletin of internal liaison under the responsibility of the Dutch section.

Adoption of "The Amsterdam declaration."

The tract "Ein Kultureller Putsch während Ihr schlaft!" (A Cultural Putsch While You Sleep!), signed by Constant, Debord, Jorn, Pinot Gallizio, Wyckaert & Zimmer for the Dutch, French, Danish, Italian, Belgian & German sections, is distributed on the morning of the 21st with an invitation to Professor Bense's tape-recorded pseudo-press conference.

Tape recorded conference by the Dutch section at the Amsterdam Academy of Architecture. | [Situationist Resources]

1960 -- Eddie Cochran dies in a hospital in Bath, England, from severe brain injuries sustained in a car crash near Chippenham, Wiltshire. Also injured in the crash are Cochran's girlfriend Sharon Sheeley & rocker Gene Vincent.

1961 -- Cuba: Defeat for Yanqui imperialism: the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba is routed

Surreptitiously CIA-backed Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) invasion fails.

Army of 1,500 anti-Castro rightwing Cuban exiles, mercenaries equipped & trained by the CIA, landed in an attempt to liberate Cuba from Communist rule.

Former Cuban landowners, US corporations & the Mafia remain SOL...The CIA is an agency shot through (then as now) with deadly self-deception. Within three days, the invasion proves an unqualified disaster; fully 1,200 of the exiles are taken prisoner.

1961 --
      . . . remember, america
eugene debs said he would not
lead you into paradise if he could,
because if he could lead you in,
someone else could lead you out, that
was the text you ought to have
listened to, that was the text you
ought to have believed, instead you
bought a world free for democracy
& you bought a return to normalcy,
& you bought a new deal, & four
freedoms (freedoms you might only
have, anyhow, if you look deep inside
yourself where all freedom is to be
found, & not with rockwell hands so
carefully & badly drawn . . .& then
america they will be unnumbered for you, america)
america yes the square deal & the
new frontier . . .

— Joel Oppenheimer, excerpt, "17-18 April, 1961"
from Walter Lowenfels, Poets of Today: A New American Anthology.

American Democracy: We Deliver (bombs)

1963 -- US: National Football League superstars Paul Hornung & Alex Karras are suspended for betting on games & associating with gamblers & "known hoodlums." Probably politicians.

1965 -- US: SDS leads anti-Vietnam War march in Washington, DC: 25,000 `March on Washington to End the War in Vietnam.' I.F. Stone & Senator Ernest Gruening of Alaska are among the speakers; Phil Ochs, Judy Collins, & Joan Baez sing.

The number of marchers is roughly equal to the number of of US troops in South Vietnam. Sponsored by the group Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), today's protest is the first major & nationwide demonstration against the war. Several hundred students break away from the main march & conduct a brief sit-in at a Capitol door. Every subsequent anti-war demonstration will see the same split between those who want to maintain peaceful, legal demonstrations & those who urge more radical tactics.

Émile Bachelet
1967 -- Émile Bachelet (1888- 1967) dies. Individualiste, antimilitariste, implicated in the doings of the Bonnot Gang. Published his vagabond memoirs, Trimards, prefaced by Edouard Dolléans, in 1951.

1968 -- US: One third of Duke University student body strikes to protest racial discrimination in hiring of non-academic staff.

1968 -- England: 20,000 in final rally for annual Aldermaston March, Trafalgar Square, London.

Bay of Pigs rock album cover
1969 -- US: Sirhan Sirhan is convicted of assassinating Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Senator Robert F. Kennedy.

1970 -- Johnny Cash performs at the White House at the invitation of Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader President Dick M. Nixon. Nixon asked Cash to perform "Okie From Muskogee" but he refused since it wasn't his song. Instead, he sang his number one hit, "A Boy Named Sue."

1971 -- US: Seattle Peace Action Coalition leads an anti-war march of 2,500 from downtown to Seattle Center.

1973 -- US: Berkeley, California voters approve marijuana initiative, making possession, use, & cultivation the lowest priority of the Berkeley police.

1975 -- Cambodia: Capitol city, Phnom Penh, falls to Khmer Rouge forces after five years of war.

1981 -- Theodore Dreiser's Sister Carrie is published in a new edition, restoring 36,000 words cut in 1900 by his wife, editors, & publisher Frank Doubleday.

1981 -- US: In a significant setback for religious freedom, the Supreme Court rules Oregon ban on peyote use by American Indians does not violate First Amendment rights.

1986 -- US: Jesse Jackson, Maxine Waters, & others form the Rainbow Coalition, a progressive public policy think tank within the Democratic Party.

1986 -- Bessie Head — South African novelist/short-story writer — dies, Bechuanaland, near Botswana. Wrote When Rain Clouds Gather (1969) & A Question of Power (1973).

1986 -- Norway: Government rejects participation in Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars).
Star Wars poster Box office sales plummet as Luke SkyWalker faces yet another crisis in the war against eternal evil.

Sun collage by James Koehnline
1989 -- US: Aided by other disciples (two guys on bicycles) of his Reorganized Latter Day Saints cult, leader Jeffrey Lundgren shoots follower Dan Avery, his wife, & their three daughters as a "blood atonement sacrifice," Kirtland, Ohio.

 Eugene Bizeau
1989 -- France: Eugène Bizeau dies.

French vine-grower, pacifist, anarchist poet & songster, member of the "Muse Rouge," Bizeau fought for his ideals until his death at the ripe old militant age of 105.

1990 -- US: Reverend Ralph Abernathy, civil rights activist, dies at 64.

1992 -- US: Government officials say Reagan & Bush secretly provided illegal arms to Iraq.

1996 -- Brazil: Police clash with 2,000 landless peasants in the eastern Amazon town of Eldorado dos Carajas, killing 19 & wounding 69.

Although 156 officer friendlies were indicted for the killings, only three officers went on trial & they were acquitted. Over 1,000 Brazilians lose their lives in similar land disputes in the 1990s according to Land Pastoral, a Catholic group advocating land reform. 90% of the land belongs to 20% of the people, while 40% own just 1%.

2000 -- US: Microradio movement news accounts on the struggle to free the airwaves: "Reclaiming Mobilization Radio" — IndyMedia - DC
Source: [Pirate Radio Kiosk]

McEgg basket
2001 -- Brazil: Protesters across the country mark the 1996 killings of landless protesters, planting crosses in city squares to honor the victims, blocking bridges & McTossing McEggs at McDonald's McRestaurants. Coordinated by the Farmworkers Movement which is pressuring the government for speedier land reforms.

Soldier, by Clifford Harper
2003 -- England: Graphic anarchy, An exhibition of Clifford Harper's work, opens at the Guardian's Newsroom (-May 30). The exhibition features over 80 images of his most recent work, including 36 illustrations from the Guardian country diary.

Clifford Harper's distinctive style of bold illustrations has made him one of the Guardian's most popular graphic artists.

Harper is a self-taught artist & has worked for many radical & alternative publications, the international anarchist movement & almost all of the UK national newspapers.

NY Anarchist Bookfair, 2009
2010 -- US: 4th annual NYC Anarchist Book Fair. One-day exposition of books, zines, pamphlets, art, film/video, & other cultural & very political productions of the libertarian scene worldwide. Additionally there are two days of panels, presentations, workshops, & skillshares.

Iraq Board Game: Help the American pilot to bomb a radar site without hitting too many civilian argets instead
4500 --

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