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Word Definitions and Background Information

Definitions of "Cover"

  • Kasah (כָּסָה) Verb
    • "hide, cover--1. conceal shame Pr. 12:16; knowledge Pr. 12:23. 2. pass. covered in respect of sin (by God, which he thus puts out of sight)." Brown, Driver, and Briggs, p. 491.
    • "to cover; concealing Prov. 12, 23; pass. constr. covered Ps. 32, 1. -- Niph. to be covered Ez. 24, 8; -- Pi. 1) to cover... Fig. to cover sin, i.e. to forgive it Ps. 85, 3; to conceal Prov. 10, 18; to hide from, Gen. 18, 17, 2) to cover oneself..." Davies, pp. 301, 302.
  • Sakak (סָכַךְ) Verb
    • "to protect, defend, hedge in" (Ex. 25:20; Ezek. 28:14; Ps. 91:4). Strong, p. 82 of the "Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary."
  • Kaphar (כָּפַר) Verb
    • "1. cover over, pacify, propitiate; Gn. 32:21 let me cover over his face by the present (so that he does not see the offence, i.e. pacify him; 2. cover over, atone for sin,... It is conceived that God in his sovereignty may himself provide an atonement or covering for men and their sins which could not be provided by men. 3. cover over, atone for sin and persons by legal rites,... and the priest shall make atonement Lv. 16:32." Brown, Driver, and Briggs, p. 497.
    • "The third aspect of the program, 'to make reconciliation for iniquity,' seems to be a rather clear picture of the cross of Christ in which Christ reconciled Israel as well as the world to Himself (2 Co 5:19). As far as the Old Testament revelation of reconciliation is concerned, lexicographers and theologians have understood the Hebrew word kipper, when used in relation to sin to mean to 'cover,' to 'wipe out,' to 'make as harmless, non-existent, or inoperative, to annul (so far as God's notice or regard is concerned), to withdraw from God's sight, with the attached ideas of reinstating in His favour, freeing from sin, and restoring to holiness'." Walvoord, pp. 221,222.

Definitions of "Obey"

  • Peitho (πείθω) Verb
    • "to persuade; PASSIVE: to be persuaded, listen to, obey" (Heb. 13:17). Thayer, p. 497.
    • "to persuade, to win over, in the Passive and Middle Voices, to be persuaded, to listen to, to obey, is so used with this meaning, in the Middle Voice, e.g., in Acts 5:36,37 (in ver. 40, Passive Voice, "they agreed"); Rom. 2:8; Gal. 5:7; Heb. 13:17; Jas. 3:3. The obedience suggested is not by submission to authority, but resulting from persuasion." Vine, Vol. 3, p. 124.
    • "to persuade; to influence by persuasion; to seek to please, to conciliate; to appease, to render tranquil... to yield to persuasion, to assent, to listen to, to obey." Berry, p. 77 of the "Greek-English New Testament Lexicon."
    • "to believe" or "to follow"... "This sense of 'to follow' can even have the further meaning of 'to obey'." Friedrich, Vol. 6, p. 3.
  • Hupakouo (υπακούω) Verb
    • "to hearken to, to obey" (Acts 6:7, Rom. 5:19, Eph. 6:1). Berry, p. 102 of the "Greek-English Lexicon."
    • "to hearken, with the idea of stillness, or attention, signifies to answer a knock at a door." Vine, Vol. 2, p. 206.

Definitions of "Submit"

  • Hupeiko (υπείκω) Verb
    • "to yield under or submissively" (Heb. 13:17). Young, p. 943.
    • "to retire, withdraw, hence to yield, submit, is used metaphorically in Heb. 13:17, of submitting to spiritual guides in the churches." Vine, Vol. 4, p. 87.
  • Hupotasso (υποτάσσω) Verb
    • "to arrange under, to subordinate; to subject, put in subjection... to subject one's self, to obey; to submit to one's control; to yield to one's admonition or advice... to obey, be subject." Thayer, p. 645.

Definitions of "Disciple"

  • Mathetes (μαθητής) Noun
    • "a learner (from manthano, to learn, from a root math--, indicating thought accompanied by endeavour), in contrast to didaskalos, a teacher; hence it denotes one who follows one's teaching, as the disciples of John, Matt. 9:14; of the Pharisees, Matt. 22: 16; of Moses, John 9:28; it is used of the disciples of Jesus (a) in a wide sense, of Jews who became His adherents, John 6:66; Luke 6:17, some being secretly so, John 19:38; (b) especially of the twelve Apostles, Matt. 10:1; Luke 22:11, e.g.; (c) of all who manifest that they are His disciples by abiding in His Word, John 8: 31; cp. 13:35; 15:8; (d) in the Acts, of those who believed upon Him and confessed Him, 6:1,2,7; 14:20,22,28; 15:10; 19:1 etc.
      A disciple was not only a pupil, but an adherent; hence they are spoken of as imitators of their teacher; cp. John 8:31; 15:8." Vine, Vol. 1, p. 316.

Definitions of "Shepherd"

  • Poimen (ποιμήν) Noun
    • "poimen, herdsman, shepherd, is an Indo-European word which is frequently used in metaphorical senses: leader, ruler, commander. It is also used as an alternative for nomeus, law-giver. poimaino means to be a shepherd, tend (act. and mid.); metaphorically, care for...
      The good shepherd of Jn. 10:1-30 is contrasted here, on one hand, with the thief and, on the other, with the stranger. The shepherd enters through the door, his sheep know him and follow him willingly. In typically Johannine fashion the unique relationship between this shepherd and his flock is expounded. It is a relationship which is elsewhere expressed in other mataphors (cf. the vine and the branches in Jn. 15; → I Am).
      This unique relationship is made possible by the shepherd's voluntary laying down of his life, something that the hireling is unable to do. He flees in the hour of danger. The hireling (misthotos), like thief and stranger, is introduced for the sake of the contrast...
      In Acts 20:28 poimne and ekklesia are juxtaposed. Paul, on the other hand, only uses the latter. In 1 Cor. 9:7 the apostle compares his claim on the church for hospitality with the shepherd's claim on the produce of his flock. 1 Pet. 2:25, however, looks back once again to the image of the shepherd and his flock; Jesus is the shepherd and → bishop of souls. Christian elders were exhorted not to be self-seeking masters over the community, but examples of service to it, so that they might pass the test when Jesus, the chief shepherd (archipoimen), appears (1 Pet. 5:3 f.). In Heb. 12:20 Christ is the great shepherd (poimen megas) who, in accordance with the theme of the letter, has, once and for all, surpassed all prototypes, including Moses himself. Rev. 7:17, on the other hand, says that the → lamb (arnion) will be the shepherd of his flock and that they will gladly follow him (cf. Rev. 14:4). Brown, Vol. 3, pp. 564-568.

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