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    Our Daily Bleed...


The Daily Bleed Detail Reference Page for the month of January

The following entries on this page provide details, subtext or background relating to dated entries cited in the Daily Bleed Calendar, linking from there to the date(s) cited here.

The Daily Bleed Calendar in full, each day of the year, is accessible at

1918 -- [January 1] US: Prior to imprisonment by the end of the month, Emma Goldman delivers her last public lectures in Chicago, Detroit, & Rochester (in Yiddish & English).
Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist

Topics by Emma include "The Bolsheviki — Their True Nature & Aim," "The Russian Revolution & its Forerunners," "Maxim Gorki," "Leonid Andreyeff," "America & the Russian Revolution," "The Spiritual & Intellectual Development of Russia," "The Spiritual Awakening of Russia," & "Women Martyrs of Russia."

The mayor of Ann Arbor, responding to pressure from the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), cancels Emma Goldman's public engagements.

Plans to speak in St. Louis, Minneapolis, Denver, Kansas City, & Cleveland are abandoned in light of difficulty securing halls & her pending imprisonment.

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1919 -- [January 1] Sara Berenguer Lahosa lives. Spanish poet, militant feminist & anarchist. Member Mujers Libres de Les Corts (Barcelona).

Companion of Jesús Guillen Bertolin (aka Guillembert). Both were organizers of the 50th anniversary exposition marking the beginning of the Spanish Revolution of 1936.

Sara appears in Susana Koska's film, Mujeres en pie de guerra (Women on a War Footing; New York Times Critic's Pick 2004), along with María Salvo, Rosa Díaz, Neus Català, Rosa Laviña, & the sisters Carme & Merçona Puig Antich.

... show details

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1984 -- [January 1] Augustin Souchy (1892-1984), German anarchist pacifist, dies.

Influenced, while young, by reading of Gustav Landauer.

In 1914 Souchy sought refuge in Sweden, but ended up in prison for distributing leaflets against the war. In prison, he wrote a book on Landauer. After the war, in 1920, he went to Russia for a labor congress, where he met & stayed with Peter Kropotkin. On his return Souchy wrote a very critical book on the Soviet Revolution.

In 1919 Souchy, with Arthur Lehning & Rudolf Rocker, was a founder of the German FAUD.

In 1922, Souchy became one of the three secretaries of the new A.I.T.

With the seizure of power by Hitler, fled from Germany, &, in 1936, participated in the Spanish Revolution, which he wrote about.

In 1937 he & Emma Goldman leave Valencia for Barcelona, which comes under bombardment by Franco's fascist forces a few days later. Souchy asked Emma to work for the foreign-language press office of the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo-Federación Anarquista Ibérica (CNT-FAI).

Souchy spent time in France & Mexico before returning to Germany in 1950.

Souchy wrote With the Peasants of Aragon (Translated by Abe Bluestein); Attention anarchiste: une vie pour la liberté; Comment vivent le paysan et l'ouvrier en Russie?; Nuit sur l'Espagne; La révolution sociale en Espagne; Amérique Latine: entre généraux paysans et révolutionnaires, etc.

See also our reference entry for Souchy

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1994 -- [January 1] EZLN insurgency begins. The EZLN, an unheard-of revolutionary organisation, seized power in parts of Chiapas, southern Mexico, calling for the reforms Zapata had fought & died for. Forty thousand federal troops now surround the revolutionaries, & the Mexican government is again under extreme pressure to reform. The struggle of the indigenous & oppressed people of Mexico has never ceased & the EZLN have captured the imagination & won the support of many.

As the clock struck midnight on Jan. 1, 1994, 3,000 indigenous men & women emerged from the highlands of Chiapas in southern Mexico equipped with black ski masks, a smattering of arms, & fake guns made of wood. Within hours they had captured six large towns. The rebellion, they explained, was timed to concur with the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement, which signified a death sentence for the natives of Chiapas, whose lands contain vast reserves of oil, uranium, & exotic timber. Their demands were simple:

Nothing for us, everything for everybody.

Indigenous army in Chiapas, Mexico, rebels in reaction to implementation of NAFTA agreement. Briefly takes over four towns before receding into jungle & beginning a national dialogue on the future of genuine democracy in Mexico. Government & business interests, their power threatened, will have none of it.

See Our Word Is Our Weapon: Selected Writings of Subcomandante Marcos (Highly praised by such renowned social critics, writers, & historians as Howard Zinn, Alice Walker, Mike Davis, Eduardo Galeano, Zack de la Rocha, Kurt Vonnegut, & Martín Espada.)

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2000 -- [January 1] France: Arthur Lehning (1899-2000) dies, Le Plessis, Indre. Born on October 23, 1899, he was 100 years old.

Anarchist & anti-militarist, an essayist & the sole editor of the avant-garde journal i 10. He was, among many other things, a secretary of the anarcho-syndicalist International Working Men's Association in 1932-1935, at a time when the IWMA was closely involved in the revolutionary activities of the Spanish Confederacin Nacional del Trabajo (CNT).

At the International Institute of Social History, Lehning will be remembered as an important representative of its founding generation. In 1935 he was among the Institute's first staff, with a special responsibility for the South-European & Anarchist collections.

From April 1939 all through WW II he was in charge of the Oxford branch of the IISH, to which the most sensitive archival records had been sent after the conclusion of the Munich Agreement. In 1957 he returned to the Institute as editor of the collected works of the Russian revolutionary, Mikhail Bakunin, published under the title Archives Bakounine. Some of his major scholarly articles were collected in From Buonarroti to Bakunin (1970).

A real internationalist, who lived in many countries & used to travel widely, Lehning always took a lively interest in political & cultural affairs that far outranged the traditional scope of the Institute. The IISH owes him deep gratitude for the tremendous work he has accomplished on its behalf.

— International Institute of Social History

Arthur Lehning was a founder, in December 1919, with Rudolf Rocker & Augustin Souchy, of the FAUD (anarcho-syndicalist Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschland).

Establishes & becomes curator of the monumental "Bakunin Files", with the International Institute of Social History of Amsterdam, in 1971.

The State, then is the most flagrant negation, the most cynical & complete negation of humanity. It rends apart the universal solidarity of all men upon the earth, & it unites some of them only in order to destroy, conquer, & enslave all the rest...

Mikhail Bakunin, "Federalism, Socialism & Anti-Teologism," 1867

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1793 -- [January 3] Lucretia Mott lives, Nantucket, Massachusetts. Abolitionist & feminist.
A life of reaction is a life of slavery, intellectually & spiritually. One must fight for a life of action, not reaction.
— Rita Mae Brown

One of the strongest voices for the rights of women & blacks in the US was Lucretia Coffin Mott, a birthright Quaker who lived most of her life in Philadelphia, the center of American Quakerism.

The event that triggered her involvement in women's rights activity was richly ironic. She was an accredited delegate to an international antislavery convention in London, along with five other US women. The men in charge apparently saw nothing wrong with excluding all women from an assembly dedicated to advancing the rights of blacks.

It was on the sidewalk outside the convention where Mott started her long association with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, together they were instrumental in establishing the basis for women's suffrage. She was a peacemaker between groups with different priorities, & campaigned (dressed in Quaker grey) for human rights into her 85th year. Her incisive, challenging mind, a clear sense of her mission, & a level-headed personality made her a natural leader & a major force in her time.

—Bleedster G. Armour Van Horn, Twisted History

Let woman then go on, not asking for favors, but claiming as right, the removal of all hindrances to her elevation in the scale of being.

— Lucretia Mott, 1793 - 1880

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1904 -- [January 3] Mexico: Ricardo Flores Magón, with his brother, Enrique, leaves for the United States.

The constant repression in Mexico, which includes the forced suspension of their paper "Regeneración" (founded by Ricardo, his brother Jesus, & Licenciado Antonio Horcasitas on August 7, 1900), left the brothers & their movement little choice.

Ricardo remained in the United States, never able to return to his country: the American government, at the behest of the Mexican dictatorship, along with privately hired detective agencies, harassed Ricardo & the PLM — arresting him on numerous occasions throughout his revolutionary career, ending only with his death in prison in 1922. Because of this, Ricardo spent most of his time, while the Revolution unfolded in Mexico, sitting in American jail cells & expending much of his energy trying to regain his freedom.

While Ricardo never returned to Mexico alive his career significantly influenced the Mexican Revolution, even in exile.

Ricardo Flores Magón remains now at rest at the Rotunda of Illustrious Men in Mexico City.

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Sidney Street (Siege), by Flavio Costantini
1911 -- [January 3] Sidney Street Siege, East London: three anarchists suspected of killing three cops three weeks earlier (Houndsditch) shoot it out with over a thousand troops, including Scots Guards from the Tower of London & armed police.
A fire brigade, determined to do its duty as it saw it, rushed up to the police barricades & demanded to be allowed through to extinguish the flames. The police refused to accommodate them, & a heated argument ensued. Churchill intervened & forbade the fire brigade to approach the house. But he enjoined them to stand by should the fire threaten to spread to adjacent buildings.

The fire engulfed the ground floor, the ceiling & upper floors collapsed, & the existence of life in what was left of the building clearly became impossible. Scores of guns were trained on the front door, which never opened. At last, the police lines dissolved, the fire brigade was unleashed, & the Home Secretary went home. The charred bodies of Svaars & Joseph were recovered.

... show details

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1937 -- [January 3] England: Emma Goldman begins organizing publicity campaign about the Spanish Revolution, including planning mass meetings in London & the provinces, but is hampered by poor communication with & lack of urgency among key anarchist leaders in Barcelona. Emma Goldman, anarchist

Aside from the London anarchists, Emma finds allies among leading members of the Independent Labour Party (ILP), including Fenner Brockway & especially writer Ethel Mannin, who becomes a close friend.

The first fruit of this alliance is Emma Goldman's joining forces with a broad English coalition sympathetic to the Republican cause to mount an exhibition in February of photographs, cartoons, posters, & pamphlets from Spain.

Meanwhile, The death on Jan. 1 of Commissioner of Immigration Daniel W. MacCormack threatens to weaken the confidence built up in the Department of Labor & delay any chance of Emma's return to the US.

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1938 -- [January 3] England: During this month Emma Goldman moves into new offices for the C.N.T.-FAI, S.I.A., & the publication "Spain & the World" in central London, but finds little enthusiasm for the S.I.A. (International Antifascist Solidarity) venture, as numerous antifascist organizations & Spanish aid committees already exist. Emma Goldman, anarchist

Having read Emma Goldman's article in December's "Spain & the World," Vázquez & Herrera warn her that frequent publicity about political persecution by the Negrín government & the Communists only undermines enthusiasm among the international proletariat for the cause of anti-fascism; she replies by noting widespread distrust of the Communists & concern that CNT-FAI tactics have dampened the workers' general enthusiasm for the revolution.

Emma also acknowledges that Paul Robeson & his wife are distancing themselves from her as a result of their close association with the Communists.

US labor leader & anarchist Rose Pesotta meets with Emma in London; promises to help organize a committee to obtain a US visa for Goldman.

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1961 -- SI dingbat


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January to February 1961

During this month (exact dates unknown — ed.) Editing of Guy Debord's film Critique of Separation.
One reel (20 min), 35 mm, black & white. Produced by the Dansk-Fransk Experimentalfilms Kompagni & Laboratoire GTC. Sound recorded at Marignan studio. Cinematographer: André Mrugalski. Editor: Chantal Delattre. Assistant director: Bernard Davidson. Script: Claude Brabant. Grip: Bernard Largemain.
Music: Couperin, March of the Champagne Regiment; Bodin de Boismortier, Allegro movement. Op. 37 — Concerto in E Minor in five parts.
Voice-over: Caroline Rittener, Guy Debord. | [Situationist Resources]

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1962 -- SI dingbat


Timeline icon

January 1962

During this month (exact date unknown — ed.)

Bilingual tract in English & French, criticizing the announcement by the Civil Defense Letter Committee that appeared in the international edition of The New York Times on 30 December 1961, regarding fallout shelters, & announcing the publication, by the European Committee for the Pursuit of Human Expansion, of the journal Mutant for Spring 1962. The tract has in actual fact been written by Guy Debord & Asger Jorn.

ALSO DURING THIS MONTH Spur #7, journal of the German section of the SI, Munich. Editor: Lothar Fischer. | [Situationist Resources]

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1972 -- [January 3] Frans Masereel dies in Avignon, France, aged 82. Graphic artist, born in Belgium in 1889. Best known for his wooodcut novels. A WWII resistance fighter (Le Soleil). Woodcut: Frans Masereel

Masereel came from a well-to-do family. He attended an art academy, & became interested in anarchism & pacifism.

At the outbreak of WWI, he fled to Geneva in neutral Switzerland. There he met many left artists & writers, such as Romain Rolland & Stefan Zweig, who became friends for life. Masereel started illustrating the pacifist magazines Les Tablettes & La Feuille. They established his international reputation.

Radical artist icon

Masereel had a long association, which lasted through the height of the Expressionist movement, with German book publisher Kurt Wolff. Inexpensive editions of Masereel's woodcut stories — including Mein Studenbuch, Geschichte Ohne Worte, & Die Stadt — as well as his illustrations for novels, pamphlets, & posters, made him an extremely popular artist. His work was also published in France, & later in the United States, to great acclaim.

In his art & his politics Masereel was always sympathetic to working people & their struggles, & in the late 1920's artists surveyed by a German magazine named Grosz, Kathe Kollwitz, & Masereel as the most important artists concerned with the daily lives of workers.

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2000 -- [January 3] Mexico: Zapatista Air (Mail) Attack

From the Mexican daily "La Jornada":

Amador Hernandez, Chiapas — The Zapatista Air Force today attacked the Federal Army encampment here with paper airplanes. Some flew well & maneuvered themselves right into the dormitories, hidden by vegetation & large black plastic sheeting. Others sputtered in flight & barely cleared the barbed wire fence.

The aircraft, white in color & letter size, carried written messages for the federal troops which have occupied a portion of the outskirts of this community for the last five months. The barbed wire is not the only cutting edge: "Soldiers, we know that poverty has made you sell your lives & souls. I also am poor, as are millions. But you are worse off, for defending our exploiter — Zedillo & his group of moneybags."

The daily, persistent & almost incredible protest of the indigenous of this region against the military occupation of their lands on the outskirts of Montes Azules has sought in many ways to make itself heard by the troops, who appear to live on the other side of the sound barrier. This afternoon they took to the air in typewritten notes, originals & carbon copies, in the prehistory of graphic reproduction.

They wrote several editions, with their copies, to maximally equip their contingent of Kamikaze letter-bombers. The plane is the bomb: "We do not sell our lives. We want to free our lives & those of your children, your lives & those of your wives, your brothers and sisters, your uncles & aunts, fathers & mothers, & the lives of millions of poor exploited Mexicans. We want to free their lives also so that soldiers do not repress their towns by the order of a few thieves."

In recent nights, the military encampment has remained on alert. All night, every fifteen minutes, a voice is heard saying, "alert, alert," among the soldiers. "So that they don't sleep," says Jose, a Tzeltal Maya peasant who has spent those nights in the encampment of the peasants who watch over the community of Amador Hernandez, & during the day they dream up protest options.

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1844 -- [January 4]
Italy: In Raguse, Sicily, Maria Occhipinti, lies down in front of army trucks which come to find new young conscripts to incorporate into the new Italian army. Within minutes, a crowd surrounds the soldiers, forcing them to release their recruits, but kill a demonstrator & set off a major revolt.

Maria Occhipinti, anarchist

The city falls to the insurgents & resists government troops for three days. The revolt is subdued only at the cost of many deaths. Leaders in the revolt, including Maria, accompanied by the young anarchist Erasmo Santangelo, organizer of the revolt, were imprisoned until the end of 1946, (except Santangelo, who was sentenced to 23 years & later found hung in his cell). The Communist Party, seeking to help restore the capitalist state & its national army in its bid for a piece of the power pie, condemned this revolt as a "soulèvement fasciste", whereas the insurrectionists claimed only bread & freedom. Maria Occhipinti told her memories of the fight in A Woman of Sicily (Italy, 1957; translated into French, 1980.)

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1879 -- [January 4] England: The weekly German language magazine "Freiheit" (Freedom) begins publishing today, in London. [Some sources indicate the 3rd rather than the 4th — ed.]
Founded by the exiled Social Democrat Johann Most, for illegal distribution in Germany, it evolves with him to anarchism. It later relocated to New York where it exerts great influence in German anarchist emigrant circles.

With Most's death in 1906, Max Baginski & Henry Bauer continue the newspaper until August 13, 1910.

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1891 -- Founding Congress of the Revolutionary Anarchist Socialist Party (PSAR), January 4-6

In January 1891, Gori took part, in the Swiss city of Capolago, in the foundation congress of the Revolutionary Anarchist Socialist Party (PSAR). This was an attempt to float a libertarian organization that recognized group autonomy, was to achieve coordination on the basis of regional federations liaising through a number of corresponding commissions. Along with Amilcare Cipriani, Malatesta, Francesco Saverio Merlino, Gori was one of the chief backers & propagandists of this party.

Returning to Milan, Gori joined with a number of workers, artists & students to launch L’Amico del Popolo, a newspaper that published 27 issues, all 27 of which were impounded by the authorities!

This was one indication of the repression that battened upon the new-born PSAR, a repression that culminated after the May Day demonstrations of 1891, when, yet again, the anarchists were very much to the fore.

In French, see also Ephéméride anarchiste
[ See also Pietro Gori Chronology by Franco Bertolucci ]

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1949 -- During this month— En janvier 1949, parution à (Londres ou Hambourg ?) de ce (seul?) numéro en langue allemande "Die Anarchie", portant le sous-titre: "Publié avec l'aide des camardes italiens". Les rédacteurs pourraient être John Olday à Londres ou Carl Langer de Hambourg. Le journal cite l'adresse des lieux où il est disponible à Paris, Londres, Hambourg, Amsterdam, Graz, Bâle, Berlin et Trieste.

1963 -- SI dingbat

Les aventures...

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January 1963

During this month (exact date unknown — ed.) Les aventures de la dialectique (Adventures of the Dialectic), and, the following week, La Revanche de la dialectique (Revenge of the Dialectic), postcard comics announcing the new mailing address for Internationale Situationniste.
Internationale Situationniste #8. Central bulletin published by the sections of the Situationist International. Editor: G.-E Debord. Editorial committee (Central Council of the SI): Bernstein, Debord, Kotànyi, Lausen. Martin, Strijbosch, Trocchi, Vaneigem. | [Situationist Resources]

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1844 -- [January 5] Peru: Manuel González Prada lives (1844-1918), Lima. Author, poet, anarchist.

Noted Peruvian poet, controversial socialist intellectual & polemicist, by 1902 González was committed to anarchist ideals & published numerous works on the social question & emancipation of the individual.

Numerous articles on anarchism & related themes which appeared in the Lima newspaper "Los Parias" (1904-1909), were collected & published as Anarquía, a book which has gone through numerous editions.

Briefly head of the National Library of Peru, he resigned following the coup d'etat in 1914.

Several of his collections of poetry were published or translated during his lifetime & continuously since.

No se arredra, no se abate,
Y con el monstruo combate
A la clara luz del Sol.
Puro y limpio se destaca
En la mortífera cloaca
Del monarquismo español.

— Manuel González Prada, "Nakens" (José), from Grafitos (Paris, 1937)

  Aunque desiertos las campiñas sean 
                     Y calcinados muros las ciudades
                     )Por qué desesperar? Creamos siempre
                     En un futuro espléndido y radiante.
                       Vendrán los siglos de soñada gloria,
                     Tras el horrible, universal combate, 
                     Que siempre fue la dicha de los hombres
                     Una flor de ruinas y de sangre.

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1858 -- [January 6] Sébastien Faure, was influenced by Peter Kropotkin, Élisée Reclus & Joseph Tortelier.

Closely associated with Louise Michel, he became a major figure in his own right, & one of the best-known anarchists France.

Sébastien Faure advocated what he called an 'Anarchist Synthesis' in which individualism, libertarian communism & anarcho-syndicalism could co-exist.

In 1921 he was the leading French anarchist critic against the growing Communist dictatorship in the Soviet Union, & during the 30s he was a prominent member of the International League of Fighters for Peace.

In 1940 Faure took refuge from the war in Royan (near Bordeaux), where he died in 1942.

Faure published numerous papers & journals, & wrote for sundry others; his books include La douleur universelle (1895), Mon communisme (1921), L'imposture religieuse (1923), Propos subversifs etc., & he initiated the important four volume l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste.

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1910 -- [January 6] Emma Goldman, anarchist feministUS: From January-June, Emma Goldman delivers a total of 120 lectures before 40,000 people in 37 cities in 25 states; credits her success to the organizing skills of Ben Reitman.

US Factoid Goldman's tour of the "Land of the Free" begins with free-speech battles that thwart her from speaking in Detroit, Columbus, & Buffalo.

The January issue of her anarchist magazine Mother Earth is seized by the US Postmaster on Anthony Comstock's objection to her essay "White Slave Traffic." It was released on Jan. 29 when officials decide there is nothing legally objectionable in the magazine.

January 9-10, large audiences attend Goldman's lectures in Cleveland; Mid-January, a successful meeting in Toledo; In Chicago, Goldman conducts six lectures in English & three in Yiddish; January 23-24, three successful meetings in Milwaukee; January 26-27, speaking engagements in Madison, Wis., set off a storm of protest from state & university officials who deny any formal endorsement of Goldman; Late January, the press attributes Goldman's unsuccessful meeting in Hannibal, Mo., to the intimidation posed by police when they record the names of everyone who steps inside the lecture hall.

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1911 -- [January 6] Emma Goldman, anarchist feministUS: Emma Goldman begins her annual "pilgrimage". Over the next six months she travels to 50 cities in 18 states, delivering 150 lectures & debates.

US Factoid January 8-14, Emma's lectures in Buffalo & Pittsburgh poorly attended; January 15-16, successful events in Cleveland, especially the Jewish meeting; January 17-20, mixed results in Columbus; denied opportunity to speak on several occasions. Emma receives support from many members of the United Mine Workers, although leaders of the UMW vote against inviting her to speak at their convention; mid-January, she holds small meetings in Elyria & Dayton, Ohio; January 21-23, speaks in Cincinnati; January 24-25, after a free-speech battle in Indianapolis, Emma is offered use of the Pentecost Tabernacle by a preacher; the next day she speaks at the Universalist Church; late January, Emma holds two meetings in Toledo; January 31-February 5, lectures in Detroit disappointing.

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1912 -- [January 6] Jacques Ellul, French Christian anarchist...
During the mid-1930's Ellul was a member of the French Communist Party, & fought with the Resistance during WWII. Primarily known as a theologian, Ellul wrote 43 books, mostly about theology & ethics & his concerns of how to maintain moral values in a technological society.

In 1988 he published Anarchie et Christianisme, made available in the US in 1991, defining his anarchism, explaining why he admires the likes of Mikhail Bakunin & the early anarcho-syndicalists. While not believing anarchism a realistically attainable goal, Ellul considers anarchism among the most admirable of goals.

Jacques Ellul, anarchist

If I rule out violent anarchism, there remains pacifist, antinationalist, anticapitalist, moral, & antidemocratic anarchism (i.e., that which is hostile to the falsified democracy of bourgeois states).

There remains the anarchism which acts by means of persuasion, by the creation of small groups & networks, denouncing falsehood & oppression, aiming at a true overturning of authorities of all kinds as people at the bottom speak & organize themselves. All this is very close to Bakunin.

       — Jacques Ellul, Anarchie et Christianisme, (1991)

What constantly marked the life of Jesus was not nonviolence but in every situation the choice not to use power. This is infinitely different.

What I Believe

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Youngstown strike graphic by Gropper
1916 -- [January 6] Strike at the Youngstown Sheet & Tube plant declared. Tomorrow the strikers' wives & other members of their families join in protest outside the factories.

Company guards employ tear gas bombs & fire into the crowd; three strikers are killed & 25 others wounded.

"Youngstown Strike" is one of William Gropper's most compelling works

... show details

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1917 -- [January 7] US: January-April 2, Emma Goldman lectures before Yiddish & English-speaking audiences in New York, Cleveland, Philadelphia, Washington, DC, Passaic, N.J., Boston, Springfield, & Brockton, Mass. Emma Goldman, anarchist feminist

Topics include "Obedience, A Social Vice," "Celibacy or Sex Expression," "Vice & Censorship, Twin Sisters—How Vice is Not Suppressed," "Michael Bakunin, His Life & Work," "Walt Whitman, the Liberator of Sex," "The Speculators in War & Starvation," "American Democracy in Relation to the Russian Revolution," & a course on Russian literature.

During this period Emma is also preoccupied with the threat of Alexander Berkman's extradition to California in connection with the Tom Mooney case.

Following the February Revolution in Russia, she supports William Shatoff's return to Russia with a contingent of Russian exiles & refugees. She & Alex entrust Louise Berger with the delivery of a manifesto they have written to the people of Russia to protest the American imprisonment of Mooney & Billings. Both attend Leon Trotsky's farewell lecture in New York City. They contemplate visiting Russia, but decide to postpone plans when they learn the British government has held up the return of several Russian revolutionaries.

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1921 -- [January 7] A lamentable appeal & warning from the Russian anarcho-syndicalists to the world proletariat is appears in the January 7-14, 1921 issue of the French journal Le Libertaire: Timeline icon

"Comrades, put an end to the domination of your bourgeoisie just as we have done here. But do not repeat our errors; do not let state communism establish itself in your countries!"

In 1920 Rudolf Rocker wrote Die Bankrotte des Russischen Stautskommunismus (The Bankruptcy of State Communism), which appeared in 1921. This was the first analysis to be made of the degeneration of the Russian Revolution. In his view the famous "dictatorship of the proletariat" was not the expression of the will of a single class, but the dictatorship of a party pretending to speak in the name of a class & kept in power by force of bayonets. "Under the dictatorship of the proletariat in Russia a new class has developed, the 'commissarocracy,' which oppresses the broad masses just as much as the old regime used to do."

By systematically subordinating all the factors in social life to an all-powerful government endowed with every prerogative, "one could not fail to end up with the hierarchy of officials which proved fatal to the development of the Russian Revolution." "Not only did the Bolsheviks borrow the state apparatus from the previous society, but they have given it an all-embracing power which no other government arrogates to itself."

Just before he died Kropotkin too had issued a "Message to the Workers of the West" in which he sorrowfully denounced the rise of a "formidable bureaucracy": "It seems to me that this attempt to build a communist republic on the basis of a strongly centralized state, under the iron law of the dictatorship of one party, has ended in a terrible fiasco. Russia teaches us how not to impose communism."

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1967 -- SI dingbat

Et ça ne fait que commencer

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During this month (exact date unknown — ed.) Et ça ne fait que commencer (And That's Just the Start of It), tract by the SI (signed by Jean Garnault & Théo Frey) & the Strasbourg students' association (AFGES) (signed by André Schneider & Bruno Vayr-Piova), published in Strasbourg. | [Situationist Resources]

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1993 -- [January 7] England: Leah Feldman (1899-1993) is cremated in London. One of the ordinary men & women who rarely get into history books but provide the backbone of the anarchist movement. Active in the once-flourishing Yiddish-speaking anarchist movement.

In the 1960s she smuggled arms into Spain for the resistance fighters who, since 1939, were still fighting the Franco regime. The Catalans, prone to giving nicknames, christened her "la yaya Makhnowista" (the Makhnovist Granny). The last known survivor of the Makhnovist movement in the west. As a young girl, Feldman helped sew uniforms for the Makhnovist Army.

Leah Feldman attended Kropotkin's funeral (the last permitted anarchist demonstration until the collapse of Stalinism), & joined the anarchist Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army led by Nestor Makhno.

Leah then worked her way to Palestine where she organised a federation of anarchists.

One surprise was meeting her old anarchist friend Paula Green, who had been pressured into marriage in Russia, & had chosen an atheist zionist. Paula knew he was active in Labour politics but thought it impossible he would ever be in government.

Green changed his name to Ben Gurion & became the first prime minister of Israel.

Paula Green never once took part in any public functions with him. She remained a still believing, if passive, anarchist.

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1911 -- [January 8] Pietro Gori (1865-1911), Italian lawyer, ardent defender of anarchists, himself an anarchist & labor activist. He was forced into exile numerous times by government repression. Gori was a founder of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (FORA; Argentina section of the IWA), the review "Criminologia moderna" &, with Luigi Fabbri, the review "Il pensiero." Gori was also a poet, dramatist & author of the famous song "Addio Lugano bella" (1895).

In 1894 Pietro Gori escaped the repression in Italy, attending conferences & agitating in England & the US.

He returned to Italy in 1898 to defend the many defendants (including Errico Malatesta) indicted after the General Strike against the increase of bread prices on January 17-18, in Ancône. The movement continued to spread from there &, on May 7, riots occurred in Milan. The army fired on demonstrators, killing hundreds.

State repression was wild & Gori went into exile in Buenos Aires, where he founded the labor organization, FORA (Federation Obrera Regional Argentina) in 1901. He returned to Europe in 1902.

The FORA grew to 250,000 members. In 1909 it split into two organizations, FORA du IXe Congrès (reformist), & FORA du Ve Congrès (which maintained it's anarchist ideals).

recent grafitti poem by Pietro Gori

In Italian, see the Pietro Gori chronology by Franco Bertolucci
& also Maurizio Binaghi, Addio, Lugano bella. Gli esuli politici nella Svizzera italiana di fine Ottocento, (Dadò editore, Locarno, 2002, 686 pp.)
Numerous poems (in Italian):

See also
Anarchy Archives has a short piece on Gori & the FORA,

Evviva Pietro Gori e 'l su' ideale
abbasso questa immonda borghesia

Dimmelo o Pietro Gori
dove sei
sono a Portoferraio a lavorare

Qui siamo nelle mani dei giudei
lavoro l'oro e mi pagan col rame

O Pietro Gori sorti dalla tomba
che c'è l'Italia è priva d'istruzione
Tu Malatesta sonala la tromba e dai lo squillo alla rivoluzione

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1873 -- [January 10] Italy: The Italian Congress of the International is convened, to meet on March 15 at Mirandola, where Cleso & Arturo Cerretti lived.
Before they can meet, however, the local section was dissolved, Cleso Cerretti is arrested.

The corresponding commission instead invites the delegates to meet at Bologna. The first meeting occurred on March 15 in a factory.

On March 16, Andrea Costa, Errico Malatesta, Alcesto Faggioli, A. Negri & other delegates were arrested, but the Congress, composed of 53 delegates of representing 50 sections, managed to meet in yet another place. Represented were local federations of Naples, Florence, Ravenna, Rimini, Turin, Mirandola, Modena, Ancona, Siena, Pisa, Rome; sections of Forli, Faenza, Lugo, S. Potito, Fusignano, Fermo e circondario, Menfi, Sciacca (Sicily), Osmimo & other small localities.

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1906 -- [January 10] England: The word ‘suffragette’ first appears in print today, in an article in the Daily Mail.

The suffrage campaign had been ‘militant’ (for example, smashing windows, chaining themselves to railings & holding large-scale demonstrations.

In this, the "women suffragists" are described as having temperaments of "folly & fury". The most common proper nouns used for the perpetrators of these 'outrages' are "suffragettes", "women or female suffragists" & "malignants", the last clearly inferring a low opinion of them.

The OED (1989) shows a difference in meaning between the first two terms, with the former connoting a "violent or 'militant' type", & present-day historians use the words accordingly. Although 'suffragette' had been coined in 1906, by the Daily Mail, at the beginning of 1913 the Daily Express used the words interchangeably.

However, the date May 8th 1913 marks a semantic shift caused by the rejection of the Women's Suffrage Bill the day before & the subsequent increase in suffragette violence, including an attempt to bomb St Paul's Cathedral. Here for the first time is seen the differentiation between the law-abiding 'suffragist' & the criminal 'suffragette', corresponding to an increase in violence of tone in the Daily Express. It served to marginalise the suffragettes, specifically their actions but by extension, though to a lesser degree, their argument. Subsequently, the most common name for them is "militant suffragettes".

Articles on the non-militants are few, demonstrating the nonnews- worthiness of the rejection of criminal tactics in a socio/political movement. There are several facets to the character of 'militant suffragette' as portrayed in the Daily Express. One key explanation of their criminal behaviour is insanity. For example, they are described as "crazy" & "frenzied".

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1922 -- [January 1922] France: During this month Sébastien Faure founds La Revue Anarchiste (The Anarchist Review). Timeline icon

This was but one of many periodicals Faure published over the years; La Revue Anarchiste became the leading monthly magazine of the French anarchist movement between the world wars.

Source: "Sebastien Faure: An Original Libertarian," from the periodical "The Raven" (reproduced on our Encyclopedia webpage).

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1981 -- [January 11] El Salvador: The Farabundo Marti Front for National Liberation launches a general offensive. In two days the guerrillas' political arm will call for a General Strike. By January 15th, about half the shops in the capital city, San Salvador, will be closed & 20,000 government workers walk out.

On January 17th, the US invokes special executive powers to send 10 million dollars of military assistance to the Salvadoran regime. The aid package includes three military "advisor" teams.

On February 7th, the rebels call for a dialogue with the US government to find a way to end the violence. The Reagan administration responds, but increases military aid to the Salvadoran government.

When the guerrilla offensive runs out of steam, the rebels flee the cities. Having failed to overthrow the government, & having seen many of their civilian sympathizers liquidated by death squads, the guerrillas focus on a full-scale rural insurgency in the northern mountains.

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1879 -- [January 12] The British-Zulu War begins as British troops under Lieutenant General Frederic Augustus invade Zululand from the southern African republic of Natal.

In 1843, Britain succeeded the Boers as the rulers of Natal, which controlled Zululand, the neighboring kingdom of the Zulu people. Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers who came to South Africa in the 17th century.

Zulus, a migrant people from the north, also came to southern Africa during the same century, settling around the Tugela River region. In 1838, the Boers, migrating north to elude the new British dominions in the south, first came into armed conflict with the Zulus, who were under the rule of King Dingane at the time.

The European migrants succeeded in overthrowing Dingane in 1840, replacing him with his son Mpande, who became a vassal of the new Boer republic of Natal. In 1843, the British took over Natal & Zululand. In 1872, King Mpande died & was succeeded by his son Cetshwayo, who was determined to resist European domination in his territory. In December of 1878, Cetshwayo rejected the British demand that he disband his troops, & in January of the next year, British forces invaded Zululand to suppress Cetshwayo. The British suffered grave defeats at Isandlwana, where 1,200 British soldiers were killed, & at Hlobane Mountain, but on March 29, the tide turned in favor of the British at the Battle of Khambula.

(The Royal Enfield .303 used by both sides on one another, is still in service in some parts. Rumors of a Dunkirk style evacuation of Vancouver Island to turn it into a Squirrel Preserve for the staff seadogs are, of course, denied.)

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No Rulers!
1883 -- [January 12] France: In Lyon at the trial of the International, begun on January 8 against the anarchists known as "The 66", the 'Anarchist Declaration' is read out to the court. It is a summary of the ideals of the accused:

"We ourselves believe that capital, the common
inheritance of humanity, since it is the fruit of
the collaboration of generations past &
present, must be at the disposal of all, in such a
way that no one can be excluded; & that no
one, on the other hand, can seize any part to the
detriment of the rest. We want, in a word,
equality: real equality, as a corollary or rather a
prime condition of liberty. From each according
to abilities, to each according to needs: no
prescription can prevail against claims which
are both legitimate & necessary."

Published in "Revolte," January 20-February 3, 1883

By 1883 Kropotkin began to emerge as a major exponent of anarcho-communism, partly because of the success of "Le Revolte" & partly because of the leading role he played in the anarchist trials at Lyon. Certainly, it is likely that he was the principle author of the 'Anarchist Declaration' read out to the court.

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1999 -- [January 12] India: A national conference of peasants & agricultural workers held at village Parmandal in Multai. This was to mark the anniversary of police firing on a peaceful peasant demonstration last year.

The Conference was jointly organised by National Alliance of People’s Movements, Bharat Jan Andolan & Kisan Sangharsh Samiti (Multai). The Multai Manifesto was adopted.

The government tried its utmost to create fear in the minds of the delegates as well as the local populace by deploying the police force in large numbers. It showed its high handedness by not allowing the construction of a martyrs’ memorial at the site of last years carnage. It also arrested 250 people wanting to pay homage to the martyrs, the procession included women, relatives of the martyrs & many national level leaders.

The Conference determined to observe 12 February as Peasants’ Rights Day to protest against the continuing anti-peasant policies of the government.

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2002 -- [January 12] Anarchist flag on Argentine Embassy! Scaling the heights of one of the slag heaps of authority to signal the need of a large dustbin.

Eight members of the group "Those Pesky Kids" (TPK) have been charged with Criminal Trespass & were bailed to appear at Bow Street Magistrates Court on the 11th Jan, after scaling the Argentine Embassy walls & dropping the red & black Anarchist flag in a gesture that was both bold & defiant!

The occupation of the embassy was in solidarity with the insurrectionary events instigated by the majority of the Argentinean population. They declare "we wholeheartedly support the dreams & desires of the peope as they reject the right of governments & corporations to rule them."

As the protesters appeared in court it was clear that one of their number who had refused bail due to the stringent & unrealistic conditions that were set, had been beaten by security guards during his time in custody. An outraged friend of the protester who was in court reported that "his face was swollen & bruised".

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1848 -- Timeline icon [January 14] French anarchiste Hippolyte Ferré lives.

Mikhail Bakunin
1850 -- [January 14] Germany: Michael Bakunin is condemned to death.

Bakunin moved to Dresden in 1849 & played a principal role in the May 3 uprising with the famed composer Richard Wagner. The rebellion was crushed by May 9th. Bakunin, arrested afterwards, is today is sentenced to die.

Bakunin's death sentence is commuted to life imprisonment in June. He is then extradited to Austria, at the request of the Austrian authorities. Bakunin is first jailed in Prague & then, in March 1851, transferred to Olmutz, where he is sentenced to hang.

Once again his sentence is commuted to life imprisonment. He is brutally treated in the Austrian prisons: his hands & feet are chained to the prison wall. After various extraditions, he ends up in Russia where he is again condemned, without trial, to six years in the dreadful dungeon in Peter & Paul Fortress.

In 1854, he succumbs to scurvy, which causes his teeth to fall out.

Eventually, in 1857, Tsar Alexander orders Bakunin's release from prison. He is then permanently exiled to Siberia, from which he escapes & voyages around the world stirring up trouble.

I re-read Camus' The Rebel & am amazed he describes the 'confession' Bakunin was forced to write to get sent to Siberia as the 'spectacular introduction of the double game' to revolutionary politics.

Maybe Camus exaggerated to make his point in his polemic but it seems a tad harsh don't you think? ... What would Camus do under such torture?

— Bleedster Professor Rat, January 2004

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1886 -- [January 14?] France: Peter Kropotkin, imprisoned for the past three years, is released (I don't have the exact day — ed.)

"In the middle of January, 1886, both Louise Michel & Pouget, as well as the four of us who were still at Clairvaux, were set free..."

Memoirs of a Revolutionist, pp485

A highly regarded writer & geographer, his reputation as an anarchist preceded him when he moved to France from England. He was in France only two months in 1882 before he was arrested & sentenced to five years in prison for his involvement in the International (which no longer existed).

1883-1886: Peter spent these three years in a French prison, despite a strong international effort to free him. prison conditions, while not good, were much better than those of the Russian prisons he had been in. Peter was allowed to see his wife, read non-political works & write on a limited basis. One of Peter's strongest supporters during this time was Elisée Reclus. Reclus supplied Peter with scientific works & worked continually to improve Peter's living conditions. Finally in January of 1886, the government decided that Peter would be less of a threat if he was out of the country. He was released under the conditions that he would leave as soon as possible.

1886: Several weeks [February? March?] after his release from prison, Peter returned to England. The time in prison had clearly taken its role on him though. He had very little energy to engage in revolutionary activities. Later in the year Peter experienced two personal hardships. First, his wife became seriously ill with typhus. She did eventually recover. Second, Peter's brother Alexander committed suicide while exiled in Siberia for a political offence. This was especially hard on Peter since they had been so close to each other. Alexander's wife came to live with Peter until she recovered from the tragedy.

When Peter found the time & energy over the next few years, he did give several lectures around England & attempted to establish an anarchist newspaper in England.

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1919 -- [January 14] Russia: Voline, Russian revolutionary & anarchist historian, arrested & dragged from one prison to another.

Trotsky, pretender to the throne, already had ordered his execution, & Voline escaped death only by sheer accident: In 1921 the Red Trade Union International held a Congress in Moscow, which included delegates from the massive anarcho-syndicalist organizations in Spain, France, & elsewhere. They arrived just as anarchists in the Taganka prison went on a hunger strike.

This caused a scandal at the Congress, forcing the Bolsheviks to release the hunger-strikers (on condition they leave Russia); the anarchists were the first political prisoners deported from the vaunted Red Fatherland of the Proletariat.

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1938 -- [January 14] England: Ethel Mannin & Emma Goldman speak on "The Betrayal of the Spanish People" at a CNT-FAI program in London; the audience turns against the Communists when they attempt to break up the meeting.

Emma Goldman, anarchist

Emma moves into new offices for the CNT-FAI, SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity), & Spain & the World in central London, but finds little enthusiasm for the SIA (International Antifascist Solidarity) venture, as numerous antifascist organizations & Spanish aid committees already exist.

Having read her article in December's Spain & the World, Vázquez & Herrera warn that frequent publicity about political persecution by the Negrín government & the Communists only undermines enthusiasm among the international proletariat for the cause of anti-fascism; Emma Goldman replies by noting widespread distrust of the Communists & concern that CNT-FAI tactics have dampened the workers' general enthusiasm for the revolution.

Emma Goldman acknowledges that Paul Robeson & his wife are distancing themselves from her as a result of their close association with the Communists. U.S. labor leader Rose Pesotta meets with Goldman in London; promises to help organize a committee to obtain a U.S. visa for her.

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1941 -- [January 14] US: A. Philip Randolph, president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters & chief spokesperson for the African American working class, calls for a March on Washington, demanding racial integration of the military & equal access to defense-industry jobs.

The call prompts black enthusiasm too great for the government to ignore. On June 18th, less than two weeks before the march, Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader President Roosevelt invited Randolph to the White House. In the unpleasant confrontation, Randolph told Roosevelt he will abandon the march plans only if Roosevelt bars job discrimination in both the defense industry & government.

Incredulous at Randolph's obstinacy, Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802 [eighty-eight oh two], the government's most significant action on behalf of African Americans since post-Civil War reconstruction.

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1962 -- [January 14] Justin Olive (1886-1962) dies. French militant anarchist & revolutionary syndicalist.

Secrétaire de l'Union des syndicats unitaires de l'Aude, il est, en mars 1922, à l'intiative d'une grève d'ouvriers agricoles. L'année suivante, il militera à la Fédération de l'Agriculture de la C.G.T.U. A partir de 1928, et jusqu'à 1937, il milite à la C.G.T- S.R (Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire), créée par Pierre Besnard.

Outre sa collaboration à la presse libertaire, il fera partie de l'association des "Amis de Han Ryner", puis de ceux de Sébastien Faure et rejoindra après-guerre le groupe "Louise Michel" de la "Fédération Anarchiste".

Source: Ephéméride anarchiste,

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1994 -- [January 14] Spanish anarchist, feminist, educator Federica Montseny (1905-1994) dies, Toulouse, France.

Daughter of Catalan anarchists, she helped re-establish her father's paper "Revista Blanca," & founded the monthly "Novella ideal" (publishing novels of libertarian propaganda, about antimilitarism, mutual aid, free love, etc). Involved with regional committees of the CNT/FAI, during the Spanish Revolution urging participation in the Republican government. Montseny joined the new republican government with three other CNT members (a source of much bitter debate). As Minister of Health, she helped enact legalized abortion. She & her companion, Germinal Esgleas, fled into exile in France along with thousands of others with the defeat of the Republic. They continued their anarchist activities opposing Franco & twice landed in French prisons.

See Camillo Berneri's "Open letter to comrade Federica Montseny",

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Timeline icon
1946 -- [January 15] Spain:

anarchist diamond dingbat;anarquista Manuel Deza García is killed on January 15, 1946 in Fuenteobejuna (Cordoba) in a confrontation with three members of the Guardia Civil at the Los Canonigos farm.

The remainder of the group manages to escape.

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1967 -- Timeline icon [January 15] SI dingbat France:


15 JANUARY 1967 Exclusion of the Garnautins (Théo Frey, Jean Garnault & Herbert Holl), French section. Because of her solidarity with the Garnautins, Édih Frey is also excluded. | [Situationist Resources]

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or visit January 15 Daily Bleed Calendar

1898 -- [January 17] Italy: Two day General Strike in Ancône, & riots, following an increase in bread prices. The army occupies the city. Errico Malatesta (publishing the newspaper L'agitazione) & several other anarchists are arrested & tried (April 21-28, 1898), for a "criminal conspiracy" against public security & property.

Bread riots had occurred in about 50 Italian towns. This was a pretext for arresting Malatesta, Smorti, Bersaglia, Panficchi, Briocchi & others of L'agitazione, who were tried as a "criminal" association (Art. 248). Many young comrades, principally students, hurried to Ancona, among them Nino Samaia & Luigi Fabbri, & edited the paper in their absence.

The trial took place in April, 1898. 3,000 anarchists signed a declaration confessing to be quietly of the same "crime," that of being "criminals," malfattori, in the sense of the Art. 248. Public indignation was roused & the tribunal did not dare to apply the Art. 248 & pronounced sentences of six or seven months' prison for forming part not of a "criminal" but of a "seditious" or, "subversive" society. The higher courts confirmed this judgment.

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1932 -- [January 18] Spain: Libertarian Communism is proclaimed in the Catalonia mine fields of High Llobregat, in Berga, Cardona, Fijols, Sallent, & Suria.

The government subdues the insurrection within the week & over 100 militants, including the anarchists Francisco Ascaso & Buenaventura Durruti, are sent to the Rio de Oro prison colony in Africa.

The Republic had recently been proclaimed, but the hopes of the Spanish people were quickly dashed. Several times, there were open revolts against the State, with numerous attempts to immediately establish libertarian communism.

DurrutiThis began with the rising in Fijols in Catalonia, which was repressed. The socialist Republican government shipped 120 Catalan anarchists to Africa, where several died of fever contracted there.

Libertarian communism is proclaimed in the Alto Llobregat region, with the intervention of the armed forces. There are mass arrests & 125 anarchists, among them Francisco Ascaso & Buenaventura Durruti are deported & shipped to Guinea & Fuerteventura.

Released, Durruti, Ascaso & Garcia Oliver form a revolutionary committee that coordinates the uprising of 1933. It was particularly sound in Catalunya, Levante & Andalucia, & significant as a response to the slaughter at Casa Viejas (Cadiz), where the civil guard assasinated several peasants. This event provoked a serious government crisis & President Azana, considered responsible for his infamous declaration, "neither wounded nor prisoners, shoot at their bellies".

Months later, Durruti & Ascaso who were in hiding were arrested. They tried to apply the vagrancy laws against them. This enraged Durruti:

"There isn't a judge that has the right to convict worker Durruti as a vagrant."

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1937 -- [January 18] Emma Goldman, anarchistEngland: Emma Goldman speaks on "The Spanish Revolution & the CNT-FAI" at a large meeting chaired by novelist Ethel Mannin in London.

Emma begins organizing a publicity campaign about the Spanish Revolution, including planning mass meetings in London & the provinces, but is hampered by poor communication with, & a lack of urgency among key anarchist leaders in Barcelona.

Aside from the London anarchists, she finds allies among leading members of the Independent Labour Party (ILP), including Fenner Brockway & especially novelist Ethel Mannin, who becomes a close friend.

The first fruit of this alliance is Emma Goldman's joining forces with a broad English coalition sympathetic to the Republican cause to mount an exhibition in February of photographs, cartoons, posters, & pamphlets from Spain.

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1898 -- [January 19] George Claude Etievant, French typographer & anarchist, stabs a sentry at the Berzeliu street police station, & wounds another after being locked up.

In 1892, Etievant received a 5-year sentence for supplying Ravachol with dynamite, & also another 5-year prison sentence for a series of articles he published in "Le libertaire".

Condemned to die June 15, 1898, his sentence was commuted to life. He died a few years later in the penal colony in Guyana.

'Par le fait même de sa naissance, chaque être a le droit de vivre et d'être heureux. Ce droit d'aller, de venir librement dans l'espace, le sol sous les pieds, le ciel sur la tête, et le soleil dans les yeux, l'air dans la poitrine, — ce droit primordial, antérieur à tous les autres droits, imprescriptible et naturel, — on le conteste à des millions d'êtres humains."

— In "Déclaration d'Etievant au tribunal"

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1910 -- [January 19] Andrea Costa (1851-1910), anarchist, participant in the national conference under the direction of Bakunin.

Held in Rimini, August 4-6, 1872, the conference gave birth to the Anarchist Federation Italian (FAI).

Andrea Costa also participated in the Swiss Congress of Saint Imier, September 15-16, 1872, but by 1879 gave up on anarchism. In 1881 he founded the paper "Avanti," then joined the revolutionary socialist party, which upheld the federative principle of the anarchists.

Costa became Italy's socialist deputy in 1892. His parliamentarism was bitterly felt by the internationalists.

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1920 -- [January 19] US: InDOLElent?: Led by the Filipino Federation of Labor, 3,000 Filipino workers on the plantations of Oahu, Hawaii, go on strike. Their ranks swell to 8,300 when Japanese workers organized by the Japanese Federation of Labor join the strike.

The plantation owners try to break the strike by hiring Hawaiian, Portuguese & Korean, & by creating distrust between the Filipino & Japanese unions. Planters also evict strikers, forcing them to find shelters in empty Honolulu lots. Crowded into encampments during the height of an influenza epidemic, thousands fall ill, & 150 die. Under these conditions, the unions call off the strike in July.

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1941 -- [January 19] Paul Reclus (son of Elie, nephew of Élisée). Anarchist militant, engineer & professor.
alt; Elisee Recluse; Reclus, Elisée

Reclus went into hiding then joined his family in Switzerland with the crushing of the Paris Commune in 1871. He returned to Paris in 1877 & became an engineer in 1880. A proponent of "propaganda by the deed", he was charged in the "Lawsuit of the 30" & took refuge in London, living in a small anarchist community. In 1895, he moved to Scotland, working as a cartographer, then as a professor. In 1903, at the request of Elisee Reclus, he moved to Belgium to help him with L'Homme et la Terre."

Allowed to re-enter to France in 1914, Paul Reclus was a signatory to the "Manifesto of the 16" (favoring participation in the allied war effort during WWI).

After the war he devoted himself to scientific work. In 1925, he joined with Dr. Marc Pierrot in producing the anarchist newspaper "Plus loin." In 1937, he was involved with "Secours International Antifasciste" (SIA).

He died at the ripe young age of 82.

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1977 -- [January 19] US: On his last full day in office, Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Jerry Ford pardons "Tokyo Rose," convicted during WWII for making Japanese propaganda broadcasts to US troops. Iva Toguri D'Aquino, an American citizen of Japanese descent, had been convicted of treason.

In an attempt to demoralize American listeners by making them homesick, Radio Tokyo broadcast dance music & nostalgic reminiscences about everyday American life.

The radio programs were extremely popular with U.S. servicemen located in remote areas of the Pacific, although there is little evidence that the broadcasts had any negative effect. Among several English-speaking female announcers at Tokyo Radio, D'Aquino was the favorite of U.S. troops, who fondly referred to her as "Tokyo Rose."

During her subsequent trial, she maintained that she was visiting a sick aunt in Japan at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, & thus had not been able to return to the US. Looking for a way to support herself in wartime Japan, she went to work for the state radio network as a secretary, & was later coerced into her position as an announcer.

On a tour of the White House she stumbled in front of Jerry & blurted "Pardon me." The Prez turns to an aide & says "Add her to the list, nobody will notice, it's my last day."

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1929 -- [January 20] Manchuria: The Korean anarchist guerrilla general Kim Jwa-Jin (sometimes called the Korean Makhno) assassinated

The Korean Anarchist Federation in China was formed in April 1924. Over 2 millon Koreans were living in Manchuria, & the Korean anarchists were active & influential among them.

By 1928 the spread of libertarian politics allowed the Korean Anarchists to organise the Eastern Anarchist Federation with comrades from China, Vietnam, Taiwan & Japan — which published a bulletin, Dong-Bang (The East).

From late 1930 on, the Japanese were attacking in waves from the South, & the Stalinists, supported by the USSR, from the North. As the anarchists grew in numbers & support the Stalinists & the pro-Japanese elements in Manchuria felt their own power bases threatened. In early 1931 the Stalinists sent assassination & kidnapping teams into the anarchist zone to murder leading activists, figuring that if they wiped out the KAFM the KAPM would wither & die.

By the summer of 1931 many leading anarchists were dead & the war on two fronts was devastating the region.

See Ha Ki-Rak's A History of the Korean Anarchist Movement (Korean Anarchist Federation, 1986). Unfortunately it is chronologically confusing.

The text of a talk presented by Alan MacSimoin provides some context,
Korean Anarchist Network,

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Timeline icon
1891 -- Jules Chazoff lives.

Cliff Notes
1561 -- [January 22] Early British philosopher Francis Bacon, author of the utopian New Atlantis, lives, York House, London.

"Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, & some few to be chewed & digested."

— Francis Bacon

Renaissance Englishman Sir Francis Bacon's Essays (1597) mark him as a master of English prose.

He died in 1626, a victim of scientific inquiry. Since he observed that cold foods lasted longer, he tried stuffing some dressed chickens with snow to see if that would retard spoilage.

He caught a death of cold stuffing the white stuff in the hens.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, January 22, 1561 )

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Cliff Notes
1788 -- [January 22] Romantic poet George Gordon, Lord Byron, lives, London, England.

Byron was born at his father's rooms on Halles Street in London's fashionable Mayfair section. His mother had ridden at Captain Byron's insistence from Aberdeen so that his son could be born on English soil.

The poet's mother said that this prenatal coach ride accounted for her son's malformed leg. Another theory is that as a prudish Scottish lady she demanded that the attending physician use what was called a birthing tent, a black sheet that preserved the woman's modesty but made the doctor literally work in the dark.

The nature of Byron's physical impairment has always been mysterious, because prosthetic devices for both legs were found after his death, none of them indicating malformation. So what probably happened is that deprivation of oxygen in those critical early moments led to motor dysfunction.

(Cited, Daily Bleed, January 22, 1788)

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Cliff Notes
1879 -- [January 22] Francis Picabia, surrealist, lives (died Nov. 30, 1953, Paris). French painter, illustrator, designer, writer, & editor who was successively involved with the Cubist, Dadaist, & Surrealist movements.

Picabia was one of the painters show in the infamous Armory Show (1913). He was a major force in the Dadaist movement in the 1920s. In the 1940s he abandoned expressionist & abstract art & returned to representational art.

Let us never forget that the greatest man is never more than an animal disguised as a god.

"La plus belle invention de l'homme est le bicarbonate de soude"

— Francis Picabia

( Cited, Daily Bleed, January 22, 1879)

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Cliff Notes
1905 -- [January 22] Russia: Bloody Sunday, massacre of demonstrators in St. Petersburg: government troops open fire on 100,000 workers, women & children, who came to petition the Tzar for improved working & living conditions. Leaves more than 1,000 demonstrators dead & 3,000 wounded. It is the beginning of the first Russian revolution. Tomorrow, the anarchist Voline forms part of the first Soviet, created to assist the victims of repression.

As Teufelsdrockh suggested, what would man be — what would any man be — without his clothes? As soon as one stops & thinks over that proposition, one realizes that without his clothes a man would be nothing at all; that the clothes do not merely make the man, the clothes are the man; that without them he is a cipher, a vacancy, a nobody, a nothing.

      — Mark Twain, The Czar's Soliloquy, "North American Review" (March 1905).

( Cited, Daily Bleed, January 22, 1905)

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Cliff Notes
1939 -- [January 22] Jeff Smith lives, Seattle, Washington. TV Chef, frugal with the food, expansive with the hands — revelations of a proclivity for young boys at his "Chaplain's Pantry" causes much scandal.

Smith had a TV cooking show called "The Frugal Gourmet," a major misnomer; while most of his recipes are not extravagant, neither are they corner-cutting.

He scolds people for using dried herbs or anything other than fresh vegetables & fruits. He has a pompous, self-serving, & egotistical personality.

He claims to like his audiences, but is always complaining about someone who wrote in & brought something to his attention.

(Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 22, 1939)

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1967 -- SI dingbat France:


Timeline icon

22 January 1967 Attention! Trois provocateurs (Warning! Three Provocateurs), tract explaining the exclusion of the Garnautins, signed by Michèle Bernstein, Guy Debord, Mustapha Khayati, J.V. Martin, Donald Nicholson-Smith, Raoul Vaneigem & René Viénet, Paris. | [Situationist Resources]

Cliff Notes
1991 -- [January 22] US: 14 ACT-UP AIDS activists arrested while simultaneously disrupting CBS, NBC & PBS evening news broadcasts with "Fight AIDS, not Arabs" banners. Members burstonto the CBS Evening News with Dan Rather & the Public Broadcasting System's MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour.

At CBS's studios, as title graphics cover the screen during the first seconds of the live show, Rather's regular voice-over is accompanied by a boisterous chorus, "Fight AIDS, not Arabs!" The cameras switch to the anchor's startled face, but gay novelist John Wier darts into the frame & screams the slogan again.

CBS technicians jump to tackle Wier, but three other ACT UP commentators join him.

Rather says, (quote) "We're going to go to a commercial now."

The shouting continues, & the chaos is followed not by a commercial, but several seconds of black-screened silence. Then Rather appears again to restart the show, calling his ACT UP guests "rude."

A few blocks away at PBS, the News Hour suffers a similar terrorist action as seven loud ACT UP members sit down in front of the cameras & chain themselves to chairs & equipment during the live show.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 22, 1991 )

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Cliff Notes
1594 -- [January 23] John Donne, from a Roman Catholic family but later converted to Anglicanism, is ordained a priest of the Church of England.

In his earlier life he had won an infamous reputation as Jack Donne the Rake (& had written some of the most famous amorous, yea, even erotic, poems in the canon), his conversion & ordination smacked of opportunism to some. Donne rose in the ranks of ecclesiastical hierarchy to become Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral & preacher to James I & Charles I. (This was Old Saint Paul's, the Gothic one that burned in 1666, not Wren's domed one.) Donne was the most morose poet in literary history. He even had his portrait made in a burial sheet & placed it at his bedside so that the first sight he had in the morning as he awoke was himself dead. His most famous poem is "Death, be not proud." The ugliest TV cowboy Paladin (Richard Boone, "Have Gun Will Travel") recited this sonnet. & Hemingway done did Donne a good turn by naming a 1940 novel For Whom the Bell Tolls.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 23, 1594 )

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Cliff Notes
1783 -- [January 23] Stendhal, a soldier under Napoleon & author (The Red & the Black,; The Charterhouse of Parma), lives, Grenoble.

Again & again he spoke of his work as a lottery ticket that would pay off in fifty or a hundred years. By the hundredth aniversary of the publication of The Red & the Black he was acknowledged the greatest of French novelists & took his place easily with radical critics of modern life.

"Moliere ," said young Stendhal, "ridiculed the vices that corrupt society. Today we must attack the vice of the spirit of society itself."

"Stendhal could look back to the outburst of primitivism, the hour of revolt, the actual street fighting, & he identified himself with Napolean, whose purported principles of intellectual integrity, rational imperative, honor, & the "career open to all the talents" was a freebooter's ethic, not a class one, least of all either bourgoeis or aristocratic... A generation later, Julien Sorel [in The Red & the Black] is only an upstart, who carries his revolution about with him as Pascal did his abyss..."

See Kenneth Rexroth, Classics Revisted

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 23, 1783; see also Jan 28, 1814)

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Cliff Notes
1870 -- [January 23] US: Baker Massacre of Blackfeet Indians, on Marias River, Montana.

Most historians of the American West have closed their eyes to what happened on that long-ago Sunday. US troops attack a friendly & almost defenseless winter village, ravaged by smallpox, killing 13 warriors among some 200 women, children & elderly.

A Blackfeet writer, James Welch, has distilled his family's recollections of this ancestral tragedy in his novel (& the only book on the slaughter) Fools Crow. Welch's Killing Custer compares the excessive attention paid to the Little Big Horn disaster with the startling obscurity of the Marias/Baker Massacre.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 23, 1870 )

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Cliff Notes
1899 -- [January 23] Film tough-guy Humphrey Bogart lives for the first time. Some believe he was born on Christmas Day 1899. Humphrey Bogart was an expert chess player & played for stakes. With a cigarette in his mouth we're sure, & a fellow named Sam playing the moves over again & again.
"The glittering treasure you are hunting for day & night lies buried on the other side of that hill yonder."

— B. Traven, The Treasure of the Sierra Madre

Bogart stars in John Huston's film of anarchist B. Traven's novel, Treasure of the Sierra Madre & other excellent films such as The African Queen, Casablanca, The Big Sleep & The Maltese Falcon. Legend has it shipboard shrapnel in WWI gave his lip that Bogey twitch, but it is more likely his alcoholic father gave it to him with a fist.

On October 24, 1947, 50 of Hollywood's writers, producers, & actors charted a plane to fly to Washington D.C. to express their displeasure with House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigation in Hollywood. Headed by Humphrey Bogart, & calling themselves "The Committee for the First Amendment", representatives included Lauren Bacall, Groucho Marx, Frank Sinatra, John Huston, Ronald Reagan (later revealed as a secret snitch for the FBI), & Danny Kaye.

"The Committee for the First Amendment" not only tried to protect the rights of the "Hollywood Ten", but also to protest the violation of the Constitutional rights. The group held press conferences in Kansas City, St. Louis, Chicago & finally in Washington D.C. outside the doors of HUAC. The committee didn't achieve anything, but brought trouble for some of it's members. As a result of the trip Humphrey Bogart, who was in the peak of his popularity before the trip, found his heroic image damaged by his high profile defense of the "impertinent subversives" — "Hollywood Ten". In order to revive his image he published a statement in the March 1948 issue of Photoplay magazine, describing himself as a "foolish & impetuous American."

Several of the other staunch defenders of free speech & civil rights went on to denounce their mission saying they had been duped by the commies.

On Bogart & the Committee for the First Amendment, Red Scare in Hollywood

On the Hollywood Blacklist, see
Nothing to do with Humphery, but maintained by a Bogartte, Surrealism & Imagination

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 23, 1899, Dec 25, 1899, Feb 14, 1925, Jan 14, 1957;
For B. Traven see Feb 23, 1882 )

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1909 -- [January 23] The Tottenham Outrage of January 1909 left a cop dead & a stray bullet killed a 10-year old boy, making headlines all over the country.

The Metropolitan Police website account notes elements of the multi-vehicle pursuit of two anarchist payroll robbers became "almost farcical," & conveniently fails to note that the police borrowed no less than four pistols from passerby, & that numerous civilians joined in the hue & cry.

The "outrage" had considerable influence on public & police perception of immigrants & the international left, & provoked some misplaced public anti-Semitism. This in turn was one of the events which influenced "The Siege of Sidney Street." (See also the "Houndsditch Murders".)

Two Latvian refugees of London's East End assaulted a messenger carrying the wages for a local rubber factory. In the course of the struggle shots were fired & overheard at a nearby police station. A police chase ensued, the armed robbers enjoying a substantial advantage initially, as the use of firearms by police or criminals was then virtually unknown. The police hastened to arm themselves, however, & ran the criminals to earth after a six-mile pursuit in which two people were killed & 27 injured.

Rumbelow describes the Latvian refugee society in London's East End, of which the robbers were part. Many Latvians had fled to London following the suppression of the revolt in their country in 1905. There they continued revolutionary & propagandist activity, staying in funds largely through "expropriations," their euphemism for what we today call "ripping off." Several of these refugees, in the course of transient existences, formed a loose association under the leadership of "Peter the Painter," an historically controversial & possibly fictitious man whom Rumbelow identifies as Peter Piaktow.

Churchill himself later described "Peter the Painter" as "one of those wild beasts who, in later years, amid the convulsions of the Great War, were to devour & ravage the Russian State & people."


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Cliff Notes
1944 -- [January 23] Norwegian printmaker/painter Edvard Munch (1863-1944), screams no more. One of the hordes of smiley-faced-Scandanavians. Refused have any contact with Nazi invaders or collaborators. One of his last works, in 1943, was a lithograph of his old anarchist friend, Hans Jaeger (1854-1910). Left all the work in his possession to the city of Oslo: 1,000 paintings, 15,400 prints, 4500 water colors & drawings, 6 sculptures.

In 1889 Munch painted a portrait of the leader of the Kristiania (as Christiania was now spelled) bohemians, the anarchist Hans Jaeger.

Sometime in 1886, he fabricated the painting The Sick Child. In the painting the thoughts of the tragic death of his sister were let out & were rather haunting. Munch also finished his series of several versions of The Sick Child. He was then identified with the controversial group called Christiania-Boheme, after a novel by Hans Jaegar.

Munch's association with Jæger & his circle of radical anarchists became a crucial turning point in his life & a source of new inner unrest & conflict. At that time Munch commenced an extensive biographical literary production which he resumed at different periods in his life. These early writings serve as a reference for several of the central motifs of the '90s. In keeping with Jæger's ideas he wanted to present truthful close-ups of the modern individual's longings & agonies — he wanted to paint his own life.


In the autumn of 1892 Munch gave a broad presentation of his art, in which he included the fruits of his sojourn in France. This exhibition resulted in Munch being invited (invitation received October 4) to show the same paintings to the Artist's Association of Berlin. It was a formidable "succès de scandale". The general public & the older painters interpreted Munch's art as anarchistic provocation, & the exhibit was closed in protest within a week.

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Cliff Notes
1957 -- [January 23] US: Illustrious Ku Klux Klan (KKK) members abduct Willie Edwards Junior, a black truck driver from Montgomery, Alabama & force him at gunpoint to jump from a bridge into the Alabama River.

His body wasn't found for months. No one was arrested & the case closed. 19 years later, murder charges were brought against three Klansmen after a confession from a fourth, who was at today's slaying scene. But the case never makes it to trial. Alabama Judge Frank Embry quashed the indictments, ruling that (quote):

"Merely forcing a person to jump from a bridge does not naturally & probably lead to the death of such person."

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 23, 1957 )

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Cliff Notes
1980 -- [January 23] Native American political prisoner Leonard Peltier, already sentenced to two life sentences, is given an additional seven years for escaping from a federal prison.

1986, 1993, 1995, & 1997 U.S. prosecutors admit they " not know who killed the agents ......." & admit in 1986 that falsified affidavits were submitted to Canadian Officials, in order to secure the extradition of Leonard Peltier.

February 6th 1999 supporters of Leonard Peltier held protests & hunger strikes in an effort to pressure the Clinton Administration to keep its 1992 campaign promise. These protests will be happening in cities all over the world including Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Washington DC, San Diego, Tacoma & Rapid City, South Dakota.
Leonard Peltier is an American Indian Movement (AIM) activist who was framed on the charge of killing two FBI agents on the Pine Ridge Lakota Reservation on June 26, 1975. Arrested in Canada on Feb. 6, 1976 & has remained in prison ever since.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 23, 1980 )

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1982 -- [January 23] CBS broadcasts The Uncounted Enemy: A Vietnam Deception, charging Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader General William Westmoreland oversaw the intentional underestimation of enemy forces to improve the perception of how things were going. The general files a libel suit. He loses, generally speaking.

Westmoreland, commander of US forces in Vietnam during the war there, on March 20, 1982 (according to a UPI dispatch on that date) told a college audience in Colorado that the armed forces could not win without public support & therefore should control the news media in wartime. He fails to note the US was never officially at war with Vietnam.

His is a rather common view in high circles, & practiced frequently by the American press, war or no war, when the government determines to manipulate the press on behalf of foreign policy objectives. In 1983 A.G.B. Metcalf, chairman of the board of trustees of Boston University & an editor of Startegic Review, a right-wing publication dealing with military strategy, warned the media:

"In a free democracy where every act, every appointment, every policy is subject to public questioning & public pressure, the mass media have a special responsibility for not impairing, in the name of free speech, the credibility of its duly elected leadership upon whose success in a dangerous world the maintenance of that freedom depends...."

(cited by Howard Zinn, Declarations of Independence, p213; see also the following pages for an accounting of press self-censorship & lies prior to the Cuban Bay of Pigs, etc.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 23, 1982 )

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1911 -- [January 24] Japan: Shusui Denjiro Kotoku (1871-1911) & 11 other anarchists hanged for a plot against the Japanese emperor's life.

Kotoku founded, with Toshihito Sakai, "Heimin Shimbun" (The Plebe). He was imprisoned for articles against the Russo-Japanese war, where he discovered Kropotkin's works.

Freed in 1905, he visited the US, then returned to Japan to restart his paper, & translate Kropotkin's writings.

Kotoku was active in organizing the trade union movement before being arrested on January 18, 1911 with 24 others for the plot on the emperor, by a government intent on repressing the movement.

Wrote Imperialism, Monster of the 20th century; The Gasoline of Socialism, etc.

See John Crump’s The Anarchist Movement in Japan

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1915 -- [January 24] "Anarchists Have Forgotten Their Principles" is the title of an article in "Freedom," November, 1914 beginning:

"At the risk of passing as a simpleton, I confess that I would never have believed it possible that Socialists — even Social Democrats — would applaud & voluntarily take part, either on the side of the Germans or on that of the Allies, in a war like the one that is at present devastating Europe. But what is there to say when the same is done by Anarchists — not numerous, it is true, but having among them comrades whom we love & respect most?"

This article may be identical with an article published by the "Avanti" (Milan) which was followed by a letter (December, 1914), which Malatesta reprinted in "Umanita Nova" Sept. 8, 1920; here he explains why, while desiring the defeat of Germany, it is not the affair of revolutionists to help the capitalist governments to bring it about.

Malatesta had also signed the International Anarchist Manifesto on the War (1915), reproduced in "Freedom," March 1915, & signed by Leonard D. Abbott, Alexander Berkman, L. Bertoni, L. Bersani, G. Bernard, G. Barrett, A. Bernardo, E. Boudot, A. Calzitta, Joseph J. Cohen, Henry Combes, Nestor Ciele von Diepen, F. W. Dunn, Ch. Frigerio, Emma Goldman, V. Garcia, Hippolyte Havel, M. H. Keell, Harry Kelly, J. Lemaire, E. Malatesta, H. Marques. Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Noel Panovich. E. Recchioni, G. Rinjders, 1. Rochtchine, A. Savioli, A. Schapiro, William Shatoff, V. J. C. Schermerhorn, C. Trombetti, P. Vallina, G. Vignati, Lillian G. Woolf & S. Yanowsky.

When the "Manifeste des Seize", the so-called "Manifesto of the Sixteen," had been published (Feb. 28, 1916; a reprint, Lausanne, "Libre Federation," May 1916, 8 pp., in 16° gives additional adhesions), Malatesta wrote the article "Pro-Government Anarchists" ("Freedom." April 1916), of which a French edition was secretly issued, bearing the title: Reponse de Malatesta au Manifeste de Seize. Anarchistes de Gouvernement (7 pp. in 16°); it is also referred to in "Umanito Nova," Aug. 26, Sept. 8, 1920. It begins by the words:

"A manifesto has just appeared, signed by Kropotkin, Grave, Malato & a dozen other old comrades, in which, echoing the supporters of the Entente Governments who are demanding a fight to a finish & the crushing of Germany, they take their stand against any idea of "premature peace." . . .

"Anarchists"Malatesta says — "owe it to themselves to protest against this attempt to implicate Anarchism in the continuance of a ferocious slaughter that has never held promise of any benefit to the cause of justice & liberty, & which now shows itself to be absolutely barren & resultless even from the standpoint of the rulers on either side." ....

— from Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist, A Condensed Sketch of Malatesta from the book by Max Nettlau (NY: Jewish Anarchist Federation, 1924).

We determined to repudiate Peter's [Kropotkin] stand, & fortunately we were not alone in this. Many others felt as we did, distressing as it was to turn against the man who had so long been our inspiration. Enrico Malatesta showed far greater understanding & consistency than Peter, & with him were Rudolf Rocker, Alexander Schapiro, Thomas H. Keell, & other native & Jewish-speaking anarchists in Great Britain.

In France Sébastien Faure, A. Armand (E. Armand? — ed.), & members of the anarchist & syndicalist movements, in Holland Domela Nieuwenhuis & his co-workers maintained a firm attitude against the wholesale murder.

In Germany Gustav Landauer, Erich Mühsam, Fritz Oerter, Fritz Kater, & scores of other comrades retained their senses.

To be sure, we were but a handful in comparison with the war-drunk millions, but we succeeded in circulating throughout the world the manifesto issued by our International Bureau, & we increased our energies at home to expose the true nature of militarism.

Emma Goldman, Living My Life

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-- [January 25] Daily Bleed Saint:


"...and when, one day he was found in Palais-Royal leading a lobster at the
end of a ribbon (because, he said, it does not bark, & knows the secrets
of the sea), the visionary had simply lost control of his visions, & had
to be sent to Dr. Blanch's asylum at Montmartre."

— Arthur Symons

It is always morning. The fields of Europe begin
to dissolve. Everywhere
Paris is dark & wet. The cafes are closed against
the rain, & the heavy
Wooden shutters begin to break open. Late March
began in the sea, & I
Must find what it was. In the bright caves on the
ocean floor, with ribbons
Shining like water, pouring from my hands. There
are so many things to know.

There are strange cities, falling all around me.
The bars are filling
With Arabs & English. Old women sell fruit and
cigars in the streets.
I keep looking for the girl I love. But no one
knows who I am. A man
Who says I must come with him, leads me away. All

Roaches grow from the thick, gray walls, & from
the barred windows I look
At the sea, at the people of Normandie, who carry
silk handkerchiefs,
And walk, whole crowds of them, into this cell
to drown.

— Thomas Brush

(Sent by Bleedster Camay, January 2004)

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Timeline icon
1894 -- [January 25] Spain: En Barcelona, un obrero hiere de un disparo al gobernador civil de la ciudad, Ramon Larroca.

Another brick in the wall?

anarchist diamond dingbat; anarquista

A bricklayer shoots & wounds Ramon Larroca, the civil governor of Barcelona.


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Chummy Fleming quote, anarchist; source
1950 --

[January 25] Australian anarchist John William "Chummy" Fleming dies 25/26 January, age 86.

Rolled at the cuffs...

'... Every Sunday until his death... he took his stand under a tree at the Yarra Bank & summoned a few cronies with a tattered cow-bell.

Draped on the branches of the tree above were two faded red flags with 'Anarchy' & 'Freedom' worked on white.

The little man with his trousers rolled at the cuffs would preach in a quavering voice at the inequities of government & religion. With his milky eyes fixed beyond his listeners he would tell of the coming reign of earthly happiness & brotherly love.' ["Chummy" Fleming first organized speakers on the Yarra Bank in the 1890's. The Yarra Bank's most famous speaker was John Curtin who was Australia's prime minister during the dark days of World War Two. The Yarra Bank was the scene of much activity during the Vietnam war. However it died out in the late 1970s.]

Chummy Fleming, anarchist; source Sources:

'Chummy' Fleming (1863-1950) by Bob James

Australian Dictionary of Biography,

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1817 -- [January 26] France: Jean-Baptiste Godin lives (1817-1888), Esquéhéries, Aisne.

French socialist, founder of the Familistère stove manufactory in Guise which after Godin's death became a commune co-owned by its workers (over 2,000 by 1908). An ardent disciple of Fourier, he advanced a considerable sum of money towards the disastrous Fourierist experiment of V. P. Considrant in Texass.

Jean-Baptiste Godin est a ma connaissance le seul industriel qui a voulu appliquer les theories de Fourier (Phalanstere). A Guise, cela a donne les Familisteres. Les ouvriers de la fabrique de poeles Godin etaient loges dans des immeubles tout confort pour l'epoque, avec eau courante, vide-ordures, etc. Bains et theatre en prime. Le seul exemple au monde, peut-etre, de capitalisme a visage humain. Paternalisme ? Peut-etre. Mais le paternalisme de Godin est bien superieur...

More on Godin, see the Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 12, Page 173 (1911),

[Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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1939 -- [January 26] "Ruta" goes to press for the last time in Spain...

The last of 'Ruta's managers inside Spain, where it lasted until 26 January 1939, when the fascists took Barcelona, was Benjamin Cano Ruiz.

On the very same day that Franco's rabble entered the southern suburbs of Barcelona, Cano Ruiz delivered a finished test issue of 'Solidaridad Obrera', the organ of the Catalan CNT, ready to go to print, to the premises of that important anarcho-syndicalist paper in the Calle Concejo de Ciento. Forty years on those premises are still there, but they have been transformed into the offices of Solidarid Nacional thanks to the efforts of the fascist victors. 'Rutas' last manager turned out to be 'Solidaridad Obrera's last director during the civil war, in a sort of 'defacto' capacity.

'Ruta's columns featured the finest pens of anarchist thinking. Felipe Alaiz had a column at the foot of the magazine's centre pages. The paper managed to keep to its regular weekly schedule. There was the eccentric doctor Diego Ruiz, Higinio Noja Ruiz, a writer who, had come from the coal pits & whose work was a marvel to us all on account of its profundity & extent. There was the poet Elias Garcia & Fontaura, & Cristóbal Garcia whom we lost track of in exile after fleeting appearances in the columns of 'Ruta' in France & of 'Cultura Proletaria' of New York. Not forgetting Lucia Sanchez Saornil, the founder of the feminist movement Mujeres Libres, & Soledad Estorach, another member of that movement & Carmen Quintana likewise; Vicente Rodriguez Garcia (known as Viroga) another lively mind cut down in the fullness of its powers in the early years of exile; Ivar Chevik, a fine Catalan who hid his real name, Roig, behind this Slav-sounding nom de plume. & there was Liberto Sarrau whose regular column "Retractos al minuto" (up to the minute portraits) gave a sort of tongue in cheek biographies of swollen headed libertarian militants or ones who had slipped down what Sébastien Faure called the "slippery slope." Along with Amador Franco, Liberto Sarrau made up the youngest duo of writers whose work appeared in "Ruta".

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1606 -- [January 27] Trial & conviction of the Gunpowder Plotters

"Since the day a man had the criminal ability to profit by another man's labor, since that very same day the exploited toiler has instinctively tried to give to his master less than was demanded from him. In this wise the worker was unconsciously doing SABOTAGE, demonstrating in an indirect way the irrepressible antagonism that arrays Capital & Labor one against the other."

Émile Pouget>
See also the Guy Fawkes Page

Guy Fawkes, the only man to enter parliament with honest intentions

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 27, 1606 )

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Cliff Notes
1842 -- [January 27] Savoyard François Dumartheray (1842-1931). Member of the First International & an anarchist communist.

Dumartheray took refuge in Switzerland during the French repression. He was a delegate to the anti-authoritarian International Congress in September 1873, & those to follow.

In February 1876, he published the booklet "Aux travailleurs manuels partisans de l'action politique". In 1877, helped write the constitution of an anarchist French federation which held its first congress at Chaux-de-Fonds.

In February 1879, he joined Kropotkin & Herzig to produce in Geneva the newspaper "Le Révolté," propagating "libertarian communism" which was adopted by the Jura Federation at its Congress of 9 & 10 October 1880. Despite the French amnesty of 1880, Dumartheray remained in Switzerland until 1927.

(Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 27, 1842)

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Cliff Notes
1880 -- [January 27] Thomas Edison patents electric incandescent lamp.

The primary drawback to gas lighting was the danger of fire, particularly indoors. Leaking or partially closed light fixtures could fill a room or building with an explosive volume of gas, resulting in a deadly blast that often led to fire. Detroit newspapers of the gaslight era are filled with tragic reports of whole families & blocks of homes being lost in gas explosions or fires. Apparently, turn-of-the-century Detroiters resignedly accepted these in the same way they would later accept motor vehicle accidents, as part of the cost of Progress.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 27, 1880 )

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Cliff Notes
1913 -- [January 27] US: Patterson silk workers' strike.

800 employees of Doherty Silk Mill quit work in protest of firing a workers' committee trying to talk to management about eliminating the four-loom system, returning to two-looms per worker. The new system meant faster, harder work for less pay. The strike became industry-wide Feb 25. The IWW was called in to help & 25,000 — virtually all the silk workers in the city — went on strike. Lasts six months, ending when ribbon workers negotiate separately. Negotiations broke down, shop by shop. The workers had become impoverished & weakened during the long strike. See Joyce Kornbluh's book Rebel Voices.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 27, 1913 )

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Cliff Notes
1945 -- [January 27] Ukrainian division of the Soviet Army frees surviving Auschwitz prisoners.

Near the provincial Polish town of Oshwiecim, the Soviet Red Army liberates Auschwitz, a Nazi concentration camp where between two & three million people perished during World War II.

As the Russians explore the three main camps comprising Auschwitz they find approximately 8,000 survivors — individuals too sick & hungry to participate in the death marches forced on the other surviving prisoners by the Nazis days before the camps liberation. Although the Nazis had made efforts to destroy the evidence of their atrocities before their departure, the massive scale of the genocide committed at Auschwitz is too great to hide & the remains of the camps extermination facilities — & of its victims — are documented by the Russians.

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 27, 1945 )

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Cliff Notes
1969 -- [January 27] A group of Detroit African-American auto workers known as the Eldon Avenue Axle Plant Revolutionary Union Movement leads a wildcat strike against racism & bad working conditions.

Since the 1967 Detroit rebellion, African American workers organized militant groups in several Detroit auto plants. The most famous of these was the Dodge Revolutionary Union Movement, or DRUM.

Combining Black-Power nationalism & workplace militancy, these young militants compare factories to plantations & white supervisors to brutal overseers. Shutting down inner-city plants in more than a dozen wildcat strikes, they criticize both the seniority system & griivance procedures as racist.

United Auto Workers (UAW) union leaders quickly denounce the protests, calling the dissidents (quote) "black fascists." The revolutionary groups leave a permanent imprint on the Detroit labor movement. Most inner-city UAW locals aresoon be headed by African Americans, some of them veterans of the insurgency.

See Detroit: I Do Mind Dying by Dan Georgakas & Marvin Surkin (new foreword by Manning Marable)

( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 27, 1969 )

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Cliff Notes
1973 -- [January 27] Vietnam Peace Treaty signed in Paris. All American troops are to leave Vietnam within 90 days.

Ends the longest war in US history. This is the same agreement as was drafted the previous October. 23,000 American troops still left in Vietnam. & announcement of (?) draft end. 3 million Americans are enlisted in the military
55,000 Americans have died in the Vietnam war

  • Great Exp: 58,000 dead / 153,000 wounded / 35,000 widows & orphans created
  • 275,000 Americans experience a death in their family
  • 1.4 million saw someone in their family wounded
  • 6.5 million served in armed forces, 1 million+ saw combat

    ( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 27, 1973 )

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  • Cliff Notes
    1988 -- [January 27] Center for Constitutional Rights reveals the FBI had under surveillance a number of organizations critical of Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Reagan administration policies in Central America.

    Although the principal target was the Committee in Solidarity with the People of El Salvador (CISPES), more than 100 other groups were investigated, including the Roman Catholic Maryknoll Sisters, the United Auto Workers, the United Steel Workers, & the National Education Association. Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader FBI director William Sessions said the investigations were an outgrowth of the belief that CISPES was aiding a "terrorist organization."

    ( Cited, Daily Bleed, Jan 27, 1988 )

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    1914 --
    [January 28] Canada: The Edmonton city council caves in to the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), agrees to provide a large hall for the homeless, passed out three 25-cent meal tickets to each man daily, & employed 400 people on a public project.

    "Are you eye wobble wobble?"

    anarchist diamond dingbat

    The IWW established an Edmonton Unemployed League, demanding that the city furnish work to everybody regardless of race, colour or nationality, at a rate of 30 cents an hour, & further, that the city distribute three 25-cent meal tickets to each man daily, tickets redeemable at any restaurant in town.

    orange diamond dingbat(According to legend) CN strike also spawned the nickname Wobbly. A Chinese restaurant keeper who fed strikers reputedly mispronounced "IWW" in asking customers "Are you eye wobble wobble?" & the name stuck. .

    orange diamond dingbat"Scab on the job" tactic created, by sending convert Wobs into scab camps to bring the workers out on strike.

    Source: A Brief History of the IWW outside the US (1905-1999) by Morgan Miller

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    Timeline icon
    1921 -- Errico Malatesta con Amedeo Boschi nel 1913 Italy: Amedeo Boschi, anarchico militant dies, 1921.

    Photo: Errico Malatesta con Amedeo Boschi nel 1913; source: A rivista anarchica

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    Ricardo Flores Magon, anarchist
    1911 -- [January 29] Mexico: The Mexican liberal party of anarchist Ricardo Flores Magón goes on the offense.

    The town of Mexicali is taken, under control of Simon Berthold & Jose Maria Leyva. Tijuana falls next, & the revolution extends to the other provinces.

    The Magonistes were joined by many internationalists, revolutionaries & members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) who came to help.

    Under the rallying cry of Tierra y Libertad, the "commune of Lower California" attempt a libertarian communist experiment: abolition property, collective work of the land, cooperative groups of producers, etc.

    Five months later, in late June, Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Francisco Madero (revolutionary opportunist), with the support of the American government, sends troops to crush them. The Magonistes are routed from Tijuana, & are trapped by the American army when they attempt to take refuge in the US.

    This libertarian revolution remains little-known, being eclipsed by the exploits of Villa & Zapata.

    In Espanol,

    While the U.S. government essentially paralyzes the PLM leadership for most of the period of the revolution, there was one, albeit small, glimmer of hope for the Magonistas — Baja, California. Their first major success was the capturing of the town of Mexicali, on January 29, 1911. With a small force of only 18, led by Jose Maria Leyva & Simon Berthold, they easily took the town. It was a victory, albeit small, to be sure; "it proved that the Liberals were able to take a strategic objective without assistance from another revolutionary group."

    Within two days the force swelled to 60, the day following, it reached 120. This number included approximately 40 Wobblies of the American Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), who were recruited on February 5, at the Labor Temple in Los Angeles. There a manifesto was read, written by Jack London, in support of the Magonistas. He stated humorously that "we socialists, anarchists, hobos, chicken thieves, outlaws & undesirable citizens of the U.S. are with you heart & soul."

    In total, the Magonista forces numbered about 500 in Baja, which included approximately 100 Anglo-American Wobblies. Among these Wobblies were the famed martyrs of the IWW cause, Frank Little & Joe Hill.

    To put a stop to this movement before it could grow any larger, Colonel Vega, the governor of the region, sent a force of 100 to dislodge the Magonistas from Mexicali. But he was entirely unsuccessful — it took him more than a week to get there, he experienced large numbers of desertions & his forces were finally routed on February 15.

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    1912 -- [January 29] US: The Bread & Roses Strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts

    In the evening, a striker, Anna LoPizzo, was shot & killed.

    Witnesses said a policeman did it, but the authorities arrested Joseph Ettor & another IWW organizer who had come to Lawrence, a poet named Arturo Giovannitti. Neither was at the scene of the shooting, but the charge was that "Joseph Ettor & Arturo Giovannitti did incite, procure, & counsel or command the said person whose name is not known to commit the said murder...."

    — Howard Zinn, The Twentieth Century (1998)

    During the Lawrence strike with money & food running out, the strikers decided to adopt a European tactic, of sending their children to stay with families outside the city.

    Four hundred letters were received from New York City who wanted the children, & on February 10 over 100 aged 4 to 14 were sent. They were greeted at Grand Central Station by 5,000 Italian socialists singing the "Marseillaise" & the "Internationale". The following week another 100 came to NY & 35 to Barre, Vt. It was becoming clear: if the children were taken care of, the strikers would stay out, for their spirit was high.

    The city officials in Lawrence, citing a statute on child neglect, said no more children would be permitted to leave.

    Despite the city edict, a group of 40 children assembled on February 24 to go to Philadelphia. The railroad station was filled with police, & the scene that followed was described to Congressmen by a member of the Women's Committee of Philadelphia:

    "When the time approached to depart, the children arranged in a long line, two by two, in orderly procession, with their parents near at hand, were about to make their way to the train when police closed in on us with their clubs, beating right & left, with no thought of the children, who were in the most desperate danger of being trampled to death. The mothers & children were thus hurled in a mass & bodily dragged to a military truck, & even then clubbed, irrespective of the cries of the panic-stricken women & children..."

    A week after that, women returning from a meeting were surrounded by police & clubbed; one pregnant woman was carried unconscious to a hospital & gave birth to a dead child.

    As we come marching, marching, we bring the greater days.
    The rising of the women means the rising of the race.
    No more the drudge & idler — ten that toil where one reposes,
    But a sharing of life's glories: Bread & roses! Bread & roses!

    — Bread & Roses; Words by James Oppenheim, Music by Caroline Kohlsaat

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    anarchist book
    1939 -- [January 29] Feminist/anarchist Germaine Greer, the "Untamed Shrew," lives, Australia.

    Greer was associated with the Sydney Libertarians till 1966, then went to England.

    The Female Eunuch was published in 1970. In an interview published in the literary magazine, 'Overland', in 1972 she says

    "I'm an anarchist still, but I'd say now I am an anarchist communist which I wasn't then".

    I saw an interview Germaine did in 1999 with author, broadcaster & academic Lisa Jardine published on the site (has now been taken down!) in which she said "I'm an anarchist basically. I don't think the future lies in constraining people into doing stuff they are not good at & don't want to do."

    Her books & her critical statements are consistent with anarchist philosophy.

    I hope to put up, not a biography, but the 1972 interview — 'Greer on Revolution, Germaine on Love' — but it may take me a month or two....

    She certainly deserves a place beside Emma Goldman as an articulate & influential feminist & anarchist. She still likes to stir things up when she visits Australia, eg a recent public call for a treaty & reconciliation with Australian aboriginal peoples.

    — Takver, Radical Traditions,

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    Gustav Hasford
    1993 -- [January 29] Gustav Hasford, Vietnam veteran & author of The Short-Timers (filmed by Stanley Kubrick as "Full Metal Jacket"), dies.

    "Capital punishment for library violations?"

    Vietnam War veteran & author of arguably the best book of fiction to emerge from that war, The Short-Timers.

    Bernie told perhaps the best "Gus story": "It's peculiar, but this happened exactly 25 years ago today. I'd set up a base camp in Hue City, & Walter Cronkite rolls up with a camera crew. He was doing a stand-upper with some pogue colonel, asking about rumors that our guys had been looting. Just then Gus busts in with two black onyx panthers & a stone Buddha on his back.

    'Hey, there's a whole temple full of this shit,' he hollers. 'We can get beaucoup bucks for this stuff in Saigon!'

    I hustled him outside quick, & Cronkite, of course, came back home & declared the war unwinnable on national TV."

    Founder of the the Cafe Cafard.

    The book — which critic Philip Beidler called a work of "indisputable genius'' — is now studied in university Vietnam literature classes along with the war's other literary classics such as Robert Stone's Dog Soldiers, Tim O'Brien's Going After Cacciato & The Things We Carried, Larry Heinemann's Close Quarters & Paco's Story, & John Del Vecchio's The 13th Valley.

    Busted for stealing hundreds of library books.

    In 1988 Hasford was arrested in San Luis Obispo for grand theft. He was accused of stealing thousands of books from more than 70 libraries throughout the US & England. Hasford ultimately pleaded no contest to reduced charges of possessing stolen property, paid a fine & shipping charges to return 748 books, & served three months of a six-month sentence.

    Alabama screenplay writer sought in connection with 10,000 recovered books
    ASSOCIATED PRESS, March 21, 1988

    University investigators said they are seeking Hasford for questioning but did not immediately seek an arrest warrant, because they want to investigate the estimated 10,000 books in 396 cardboard boxes.

    Officers took a weekend break from the mammoth job of cataloging the pile of books, which measures 27 feet long, 5 feet wide & 5 feet tall, police dispatcher Suzi Goodwin said Sunday.

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