Cat Has Had the Time of His Life

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    Our Daily Bleed...

The Daily Bleed Detail Reference Page for the month of July

The following entries on this page provide details, subtext or background relating to dated entries cited in the Daily Bleed Calendar, linked from there to the date(s) cited here.

The Daily Bleed Calendar in full, & access to the pages for this month, are accessible at

1876 -- [July 1] Switzerland: Michael Bakunin dies

Six years after sending him to prison, Tsar Alexander showed some mercy to Bakunin & commuted his prison sentence to a lifetime of exile in Siberia. After four years there, Bakunin hatched a plan to escape & was successful. After a long voyage aboard merchant ships & crossing the US, he arrived in London on December 27.

In 1866, Bakunin founded International Brotherhood for revolutionary "socialists" such as himself; two years later, he founded the International Alliance for Social Democracy. Fleeing from yet another arrest warrant in 1870, Bakunin took shelter in Marseilles. It was around this time he wrote one of his more noted works, God & the State.

In 1873, Bakunin decided his revolutionary days were at an end & took an early retirement at age 59. Less than three years after his respite began, he died.

"No theory, no ready-made system, no book that has ever been written will save the world.

I cleave to no system. I am a true seeker."

— Mikhail Bakunin

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1920 -- [July 1] Italy & the council movement

The council movement in Turin begins a strike combined with occupation of the factories & resumes production under their own control.

By April 14 the strike is general in Piedmont; in the following days it spread through much of northern Italy, particularly among the dockers & railroad workers. The government had to use warships to land troops at Genoa to march on Turin.

While the councilist program was later approved by the Congress of the Italian Anarchist Union (UAI) when it met at Bologna on July 1, the Socialist Party & the unions succeeded in sabotaging the strike by keeping it isolated: when Turin was besieged by 20,000 soldiers & police, the party newspaper Avanti refused to print the appeal of the Turin socialist section (see Masini, op. cit.; See also September 10, 1920) The strike, which would clearly have made possible a victorious insurrection in the whole country, was vanquished on April 24.)

... more

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1932 -- [July 1] US: Farmers in Iowa blockade roads, arm themselves with pitchforks & shotguns & refuse to allow farm produce to go to market.

"I am trying to provide security for human beings which they are not getting. If we don't give it under the existing system, the people will change the system. Make no mistake about that."

— Hamilton Fish, Jr., Congressman, New York

"If this country ever needed a Mussolini, it needs one now."

— David A. Reed, Senator, Pennsylvania

July. Many of veterans begin to drift away, back onto dusty roads. But many stay on — particularly because they have no other place to go. Anacostia Flats celebrates the birth of its first baby, Bernard Myers.

Congress forces the RFC (Reconstruction Finance Corporation, established by Herbert Hoover) to disclose its operations. It is revealed that money meant to be loaned to banks to help them get back on their feet is being given only to banks that give RFC members chairmanships. By the end of the year, the RFC has allocated only $30 million of its $300 million for relief.

As Congress prepares to recess. The veterans see their chances slipping away for the assistance they came to request.

Source: [Vanessa Collection]

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1951 -- [July 1] US: Mary Reeser, of St. Petersburg, Florida, spontaneously combusts.

If life feels out of control, then eat. Fat laden foods comfort most, as comfort from banking against the cold of a long winter or lean times is built into the human animal.

The more worry, the more chomping, & under normal circumstances this simply results in obesity.

However, worry causes the liver to flood the blood stream with a fine oil, readily lit, in case the body need take flight or fight. In some humans a rare genetic condition exists allowing the combustion of this fine oil to continue, unabated, when in combination with a type of adrenaline, the catalyst. The need for oxygen is bypassed, as a self-feeding chemical reaction starts where a byproduct of the catalyst-induced combustion incites combustion in neighboring areas, & the matter goes out of control.

[Vanessa Collection]

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1966 -- Timeline icon SI dingbat England:


orange diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2007

[July 1966]

During this month (Exact date not given — ed.) Heatwave #1 appears, in London. Editor: Charles Radcliffe. Heatwave was closely associated with the Chicago-based Rebel Worker, which included Franklin Rosemont, Penelope Rosemont, & Bernard Marszalek...

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1947 -- [July 2] US: During this month, in the July 1947 issue of "Foreign Affairs", George Kennan, the head of the policy planning staff of the State Department, advocates the "containment" of the Soviet Union

He argues that the Communist system would ultimately collapse under its own weight if the U.S. & its democratic allies barred Moscow's further expansion.

Events would prove Kennan right, though the process took more than four decades, far longer than he expected. In the interim, the U.S. would spend trillions of dollars on the Cold War, conscripting tens of millions of American men into the military & employing millions more indirectly at the companies that built the weapons to support the war machine. Along the way, the military-industrial complex would arm much of the Third World, including some countries that would remain distinctly unfriendly to the U.S. well after the fall of the Soviet Union.

[Vanessa Collection]

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2001 -- [July 2] Bolivia: At around 10 a.m. on July 2, a group of some 120 Bolivians armed with sticks of dynamite seize control of the Banks Superintendency building in La Paz to demand elimination of their small-scale debts with the country’s banks & financial institutions.

The protesters blocked the entrance of the building, took hostage nearly 100 employees who were working there at the time, & hurled sticks of dynamite whenever police tried to approach.

Two more groups, each of about 50 debtors, occupied the La Paz offices of the Bolivian Episcopal Conference & the Defender of the People, & began hunger strikes there.

Protesters tied sticks of dynamite to their own bodies & some of their hostages.

“We cannot leave while there is no dialogue to solve our problem, & if no solution is found, we are determined to commit suicide in front of you, because we cannot put up with this situation any longer,” one of the debt protesters told the press, according to a communiqué from the anarchist group Juventudes Libertarias (JJLL).

Among those leading the debtor occupation are members of the anarchist feminist collective Mujeres Creando (Women Creating), the JJLL communiqué reports.

Mujeres Creando addresses gender, sexuality, class & race, backing up its unflinching critique of society, government & culture with concrete actions. Activities include running a small culture center, publishing, & all manner of agitating. The group is best known for its graffiti, always signed Mujeres Creando. Favorite targets include neoliberals, smug macho leftists, & mainstream feminists (“gender technocrats”).

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1865 -- [July 3] Auguste Garnery (1865-1935) French anarchist militant, revolutionary trade unionist & antimilitarist

Delegate for the Federation of the Jewellers to the congresses of the C.G.T. In 1908, he replaced George Yvetot (then imprisoned) as secretary of the fédération des Bourses du travail.

Garnery was jailed several times for his militant activities, including a 15 month sentence for his actions in the l'Association Internationale Antimilitariste.

During WWI, Garnery worked with the Parisian co-operative "Bellevilloise".

A close friend of of Pierre Monatte, in 1925 Garnery helped Monatte start the review Révolution prolétarienne, an anarchist-syndicalist publication which many anarchists wrote for. The review stopped publishing in 1939, resuming again in 1947.

Garnery retired to Saclas (the Seine & Oise) where he died, April 21, 1935

[Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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1876 -- [July 4] US: Albert Parsons joins the Knights of Labor. Later became a member of the first local chapter in Chicago.

In the Spring of 1877, Parsons ran for Chicago County Clerk, receiving 7,963 votes.

In 1878, the Trades Assembly of Chicago was organized & Parsons elected its first president. He was also the first workingman nominated by workingmen to run for the office of President of the United States in 1879, as a Labor candidate, but had to decline because he was not yet 35 years-old.

Later he became an anarchist & was one of the Haymarket Martyrs wrongly hanged.

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Leda Rafanelli
1880 -- [July 4] Italy: Leda Rafanelli, anarchist, lives (1880-1971), Pistoia.

Leda Rafanelli went to Alexandria, Egypt in 1900, returning to Italy tenaciously dedicated to two seemingly incompatible ideas, Islam & anarchism.

Leda Rafanelli was an anarchist mystic who identified strongly with Individualist writing of that time.

Rafanelli set up a publishing house, the "Casa Editrice Sociale" & printed the works of a diverse group of writers, among them Max Stirner & Nietzche. Rafanelli was strongly committed to anti-colonialism, & opposed European imperialism.

This was reinforced by her conversion to Islam, although she had wrote many articles raging against clericalism, militarism & the oppression of women, Leda's Arabic culture became a social & political alternative in which to oppose Western civilization.

... more

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1894 -- [July 5] US: The Pullman Strike of 1894. Federal government & troops interfere with a peaceful labor strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company, which had drastically reduced wages. Federal troops killed 34 American Railway Union members in the Chicago area attempting to break a strike, led by Eugene Debs, against the Pullman Company. Debs & several others were imprisoned for violating injunctions, causing disintegration of the union.

Despite repeated protests by Governor Altgeld, Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader President Cleveland continued to send in federal troops.

The reaction of the strikers to the appearance of the troops was that of outrage.

What had been a basically peaceful strike turned into complete mayhem... with mobs of people setting off fireworks & tipping over rail cars yesterday on July 4. Burning & rioting came to a zenith on July 6, when fires caused by some 6,000 rioters destroyed 700 railcars & caused $340,000 of damages in the South Chicago Panhandle yards.

&, thus, the merry war — the dance of skeletons bathed in human tears — goes on ... forever unless you, the American Railway Union, stop it; end it; crush it out.

— Jennie Curtis, President of ARU Local 269, the "Girls" Local Union, Address to 1894 Convention of American Railway Union

.... show details

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1892 -- [July 6] The Homestead Strike. Strikers battle Pinkerton thugs during the Carnegie Steel strike in Homestead, Pennsylvania. The Pinkertons, trying to import & protect scabs, open fire on striking steelworkers.

In the ensuing battle, three Pinkertons & 11 strikers & spectators were shot to death.

Strikers militantly resisted the private goons hired by Henry Clay Frick to dislodge them from plant grounds. They fought back with guns & homemade cannon. The strike held for four months, but the company was able to restore production & as winter approached morale declined. Finally unskilled workers sought release from their strike pledge, & two days later, on November 20, the skilled workers' union, The Amalgamated Association of Iron & Steel Workers, called off the strike.

.... show details

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1898 -- [July 6] Hanns Eisler lives, (1898-1962)

German born film composer forced to flee Nazi Germnay, then deported from the United States in 1948... Eisler is the brother of Gerhart Eisler, a known Comintern Agent.

Arnold Schönberg considered him to be one of his most important students, alongside Berg & Webern. Eisler sought to bridge the gulf between contemporary music & the larger public by producing engaging works that responded to the political & aesthetic currents of his day.

“He who knows only music understands nothing about it.”

— Hanns Eisler (1898-1962)

"Eisler on the Go", is a song concerning Woody Guthrie's fellow folksinger Hanns Eisler, who was dragged in front of the House Committee on Un-American Activities.

1933 Because of the political character of his work Eisler was forced to flee Germany. Travels to Czechoslovakia, afterwards to Paris, London & Vienna. He gives concerts in Holland & Belgium.

1935 Eisler undertakes a lecture & a concert tour of the United States.

1936/37 Exile in Spain. Here Eisler composes combat songs for the International Brigades during the Spanish Revolution / Civil War.

1938 Emigrates to the US, where he continues to work with Bertolt Brecht (also forced to flee the US) & works on film scores. His collaboration with Bertolt Brecht spanned almost 30 years, ending only with Brecht’s death in 1956. Eisler also teaches at the New School for Social Research in NYC.

1962 Hanns Eisler dies in East Berlin September 6, 1962.

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1926 -- [July 6] US: IRT subway workers strike in NYC

An unsuccessful strike by NYC subway workers begins (-July 29) Transit companies were then owned by powerful & wealthy private interests, which kept wages pitifully low & working conditions abysmal.

Most transit workers labored seven days a week anywhere from 8.5 to 11.5 hours a day. In desperation, workers tried in vain to organize unions in 1905, 1910, 1916 & 1919.

Strikes in those years were brutally suppressed by management goons, anti-worker courts & government officials.

[Source, click here]

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1892 -- [July 7] Henry Bauer

Bauer emigrated to the US in 1890, where he worked as a carpenter in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He became involved with the anarchist movement there following the events following the Haymarket bombing in Chicago (where anarchists were framed). In 1893 Henry Bauer was arrested & sent to prison for five years for distributing leaflets during the Homestead Strike, where Alexander Berkman had attempted to assassinate Henry Frick.

After his release he continued working with Emma Goldman too secure Alexander Berkman's release.

[Source: L'Ephéméride Anarchiste]

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1980 -- [July 7] Spanish anarchist Juan García Oliver dies. Minister of Justice in the Republican Government.

Several members of Nosotros, an FAI action group. Those pictured include the three most well-known figures, Garcia Oliver, Francisco Ascaso, & Buenaventura Durruti.

García Oliver was part of "Los Solidarios", with Buenaventura Durruti, Gregorio Jover, Francisco Ascaso, Antonio Ortiz, Ricardo Sanz, etc. They fought against the "Pistoleros" (goon squads hired by Catholic employers to assassinate trade unionists).

Juan García Oliver was a member of the Catalan Regional Committee of the C.N.T., & a close associate of Durruti. During the initial battle against the military uprising of July 1936 in Barcelona, he led the group which seized the women's prison & released all the prisoners. He became Minister of Justice to the Republican government. As such, he acted on the philosophy that crime was the product of social deficencies & that criminals should be treated, not punished.

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1898 -- [July 8] May Picqueray, French militant anarchist

Picqueray appears in Bernard Baissat's film series Listen (interviews with an older generation of anarchists, with Andre Claudot, Jeanne Humbert, Eugene Bizeau, Marcel Body, Aguigui Mouna, Robert Jospin, André Bösiger & Rene Dumont).

"Les premiers mai 1920 et 21 furent particulièrement sauvages. En sortant de la Bourse du Travail, place de la République, les gardes à cheval nous chargèrent à coup de plat de sabre, et l'un deux me claqua la face de telle manière que je crus avoir la tête écollée. Je conservai longtemps la trace de son sabre sur mon visage."

May la refractaire, couverture de la réédition du livre (Editions Traffic, 1992)

May Picqueray, in French, see Ephéméride anarchiste

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1898 -- [July 8] Colonies founded by Georges Butaud

Georges Butaud's energies were devoted to creating anarchist colonies, in which he participated: in 1898 he founded a radical colony in the Parisian suburbs; another in 1899 in Saint Symphorien d' Ozon, in Isère, then in the "Milieu libre de Vaux" near Chateau-Thierry (1902 to 1906); in 1913 in Saint Maur (the Seine), a community farm devoted to agriculture & breeding.

Butaud, sensitive to problems involving food consumption, became an advocate of vegetarianism, which he practiced in the colony of Bascon (Aisne).

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La Revista Blanca front page; Numéro du 15 janvier 1903; source
1898 -- [July 8] Spain: During this month Federico Urales & Soledad Gustavo begin publishing the fortnightly “Revista Blanca”, in Madrid.

Founded in the campaign to assist the victims in procès de Montjuich, its emphasis on sociology, art & science quickly attracted the most brilliant of Spanish thinkers, as well as anarchists internationally. On May 20, 1899, it began a weekly supplement which two year laters became, independently, “Tierra y Libertad”.

“Revista Blanca” ceased publishing June 15, 1905, but appeared again from 1923 to 1936, directed by Urales & his daughter Federica Montseny. In addition, another supplement, published since 1931, gave rise to the newspaper “El Luchador”.

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1922 -- [July 8] Spain: Conference in Blanes (8-10th) where the principal discussion centers on the repressive Martínez Anido, Military & Civil Governor of Barcelona, & his bloody repression of the CNT.

The union is outlawed in 1920, & large numbers of cenetista anarchist leaders are jailed or assassinated in the years following by the government's effort to destroy the CNT. The leadership of Spain's largest trade union is decimated but the union unvanquished.

.... show details

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1932 -- [July 8] Russian author Aleksandr Grin

Grin worked a variety of jobs, roamed European Russia & the Urals. In the early 1900s he joined the Socialist Revolutionary Party & was exiled to Siberia.

His stories drew on his travels & adventures & extensive reading of Western writers. They are among the most exotic of all Russian literature, fantastic & whimsical works with no relation to everyday life.

Soviet critics called his settings "Grin-Land." His writing was so unusual & unclassifiable, Soviet censors ignored him; in the late 1920s, however, some questioned his social significance, & in 1950 his work was condemned as antisocial, bourgeois, & decadent.

Now fully recognized as a master of the allegorical & symbolic tale & novel, & as the creator of a fantasy world expressive of a profound humanism & moral responsibility.

Among his best known works are the novels Blistayushchiy mir (1923; "The Glittering World") & Doroga nikuda (1930; "The Road to Nowhere"); & the tales Korabli v Lisse (1918; "The Ships in Liss") & Serdtse pustyni (1923; "Heart of the Desert"). His story "Alyye parusa" (1923; Scarlet Sails, 1967) was the basis for a Soviet ballet & film.

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1963 -- [July 8] "I ambush Robert Creeley..."

... thus came Olson, Duncan, Ginsberg et al, .... deep in nostalgia, memories of San Francisco in the 1950s.

McClure recalls Creeley arriving at a house in SF & asking if they had anything to drink; all we have, they replied, is the gin we keep the garlic cloves in; I'll take that, said Creeley, "& we knew he was one of us." ....

Sharon Olds puts on a mask, to stunning effect ....

"Poetry audiences," says Bobby Louise Hawkins, "are inured to pain"

.... reading in the evening leads off with Anne Waldman. I still think she overdoes the dramatic presentation, but there's some good stuff here, especially a long piece on John Cage ....

Creeley delights me by going right back to the poem that includes the line "Poor. Old. Tired. Horse." He is as precise, & as elliptical, as ever .... jazz pianist Cecil Taylor gives an extended improvisation, which I think would have gone on forever if they hadn't commissioned Ginsberg (who else could have done it?) to go on stage & tell him to stop ....

drink till the bar closes ...

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1872 -- [July 9] Songster Gaston Montehus

A moderate socialist, Montehus became (1906) an ardent antimilitarist, close to the positions of Gustave Herve & his newspaper "The Social War."

Author of a hundred well-known songs, such as, "Gloire au 17e " (1907) & "La Grève des Mères" (The Strike of the Mothers) (1910) which were taken up by revolutionary Paris.

The recital of his songs were often stopped by the anti-semitic reactionaries of Drumont or the cops because of their subversive contents, & the source of many brawls. But when WWI erupts in 1914, Montehus follows Gustave Herve in a turnabout, applauding "l'union sacré" & its patriotism.

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1917 -- [July 9] Brazil: Antonio Martinez, shoe-maker & anarchist, is killed by the São Paulo cops at a demonstration during a textile strike (or on the 11th?). Brazil's anarcho-syndicalist movement was the second largest in Latin America during the first quarter of the 20th century. His killing sets off a 3-day General Strike on the 13th. It would soon spread to Rio de Janeiro & all of industrial Brazil was stopped & in control of the workers by the end of the month.
There are conflicting sources regards the date of the strike & killing Martinez. Ephéméride anarchiste places the date on the 9th; Colin Everett's paper, "Organized Labor in Brazil 1900-1937: From Anarchist Origins to Government Control" places these on the 11th:

"At one such of these rallies on July 11, a common worker who had no connection with the rally, Antonio Martinez, was beaten to death by Sao Paulo police. Sao Paulo erupted in shock at the brutal death of a 21 year old worker. Antonio Martinez's funeral was a massive event. The funeral procession marched throughout the city & at one point the police confronted the mourners. After a shuffle the police began to attack the crowds. Police on horseback attacked one portion of the processional with swords. The result of this was massive unrest & rioting in Sao Paulo. The next day, July 12, 15,000 workers walked out on strike. The day after another 5,000 workers joined the strike. Soon a general strike was declared & the city was at a standstill. The government declared martial law & brought in the army. The main cause behind all the strikes was the high cost of food & the brutal death of Martinez was just the catalyst.

Eventually, the strike ended when the government put pressure on the industrialist's to end the strike; the workers settled for a 10% wage increase."

See also "Anarchist Ideology, Worker Practice: The 1917 GeneralStrike"

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1921 -- [July 9] Russia: Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman gather support to protest the imprisonment of Voline, G. P. Maximov, & other anarchists who are on a hunger strike.
A delegation meets with Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Lenin today; Lenin is only willing to deport the anarchists, upon penalty of death if they return to Russia. Offer is accepted & hunger strike is terminated on July 13.

Goldman notes that the American Communists remain silent on the issue & distance themselves from association with the anarchists.

Goldman further attempts to convince delegates to pressure the Soviet authorities to allow Maria Spiridonova to obtain medical treatment overseas. She meets with German socialist Clara Zetkin. Spiridonova is eventually released from prison.

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1892 -- [July 11] Apr.-July: Miners strike at Coeur D'Alene, Idaho. After strikers dynamite a concentrating mill at the Frisco mine
July 11, the National Guard & federal troops are called out & martial law established on July 13. During the next five days, 600 miners & sympathizers are arrested. Thirteen are convicted of contempt of court & four of conspiracy. In December, the AFL convention votes $500 for the miners' defense & calls for a congressional investigation. Although the mines reopen with nonunion labor & the strike is lost, the U.S. Supreme Court reverses the conspiracy convictions in Mar. 1893, the remaining indictments are lifted, & those still in custody are released.

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1893 -- [July 11] France: Lucien Haussard (July 11, 1893- December 3, 1969). Militant, anarchist propagandist & freethinker.

orange diamond dingbatIn 1914, Haussard is taken prisoner by the Germans during the occupation of St-Quentin.
orange diamond dingbatPost-war period he becomes corrector of printing works in Paris & frequents the libertarians who are beginning to reorganize.
orange diamond dingbatIn 1919, he is a treasurer of the “Anarchist Communist Federation” reconstituted, & collaborates with "Libertaire".
orange diamond dingbatFrom 1921, he attends the congresses of “the Anarchist Union” (U.A) & becomes administrator of "Libertaire"
orange diamond dingbatIn 1924, he launches a transitory semi-monthly where all the anarchistic opinions can be expressed "L'Idée anarchiste"
orange diamond dingbatIn 1926, he also joined the review of Dr. Pierrot, "Plus loin", which he managed from 1931 to 1939.
orange diamond dingbatIn 1930, because of health problems, he becomes a stallholder. Later, about 1934, he received a 4 month sentence in prison for helping fugitives to escape across the Franco-Catalan border by car. During the spring of 1937 Haussard is representative for the Comité pour l’Espagne libre in Spain
orange diamond dingbatFrom October 30 to November 1, 1937, he is delegated in Paris to the congress of “the U.A” which sees the creation of the French section of “S.I.A” (International Solidarity Antifascist).
orange diamond dingbatArrested in 1939, Haussard is interned until spring 1941. During internment he clandestinely created a printing die for passes, for activists & supplies to “Spain antifranquist” to get across the border.
orange diamond dingbatUpon his release, he resumed his work as stallholder in Brive-la-Gaillarde, & also becomes president of the Freethinking.

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1917 -- [July 12] US: Bisbee Deportation
The IWW had called a strike against the copper mines two weeks ago, when workers' demands (including improvements to safety & working conditions at the local copper mines, an end to discrimination against labor organizations & unequal treatment of foreign & minority workers, & the institution of a fair wage system) went unmet; patriotism & support for the war effort were ostensibly the reasons for the anti-labor action.

A posse had a list of IWW members, supporters, & sympathizers & rounded up 1,200 people. Some agreed to return to work after being caught, & those were allowed to stay in Bisbee. The rest were put on train freights & shipped to New Mexico & abandoned in Hermanas. A nearby army fort gave the deportees some water to survive for a few days, & then the group dispersed & never returned to Bisbee...

The "deportation" was organized by Sheriff Harry Wheeler. The incident was investigated months later by a Federal Mediation Commission set up by Beloved & Respected Comrade Liberal President Woodrow Wilson; the Commission found that no federal law applied, & referred the case to the State of Arizona, which failed to take any action, citing patriotism & support for the war as justification for the vigilantes' action.

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1918 -- [July 12] Luigi Molinari (December 15, 1866-July 12, 1918)

Of the same second generation of anarchists as Gori, Malatesta & Camillo Berneri in the Italian anarchist movement.

The Lombard, Luigi Molinari, devoted much of his activity to editing a paper "L’Universita Popolare" & to projects of libertarian education based on the Modern School ideas of the martyred Spanish anarchist Francisco Ferrer. He believed in intensive campaigns of education among the workers & peasants & saw the value of song as a propaganda weapon. His Inno della Rivolta (Hymn of Revolt) is the most famous of his songs.

In 1894 Molinari was arrested & hastily convicted (on January 31st) by a military tribunal as instigator of an insurrection earlier in the month in Lunigiana, where armed bands of anarchists supported Sicilian victims of the "State of Siege" (declared as the government moved to repress revolts against increased flour prices.)

Blamed as the instigator of the insurrection Molinari was condemned to 23 years in prison. A massive protest campaign in his favor, however, led to his freedom & he was amnestied September 20, 1895.


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1926 -- [12-14 juillet] France: At the Union anarchiste Congress in Orléans (12-14th) the U.A. changes its name to Union anarchiste communiste (U.A.C.).

This reflects a major shift in the movement over the years away from the "individualist" anarchism of the pre-WWI years. Membership is wide-ranging, signified, for example by the contrasting ideas of Voline & Nestor Makhno. A growing opposition develops between "platformist" partisans & those in favor of the Synthesis.

The Union anarchiste communiste was created in 1920, the short-lived Fédération communiste révolutionnaire anarchiste (launched in 1913) having been destroyed by the Great War to End All Wars.

As a result of the increasing marginalisation of individualism, the organization changed its name to Union anarchiste communiste in 1926, & a year later the word révolutionnaire was added under the influence of those — the ‘platformists ’— in favor of more cohesive organization, a more workerist emphasis & closer links with organised labour & with other sectors of the left.

In June the “project of organisational platform for a general Union of the anarchists appears”, better known under the name of the “platform of Archinov”. Voline answers this platform with his project of “Synthesis” in his article “The organisational problem & the idea of synthesis”.

Along these lines, after the congress in Orleans, the revolutionary trade unionists leave the CGT & join the CGT-SR (with Julien Toublet as secretary).

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1876 -- [July 13] Auguste Durand, French antimilitarist, militant anarchist & revolutionary syndicalist

In 1908, Durand is one of the organizers of the conferences of Sébastien Faure in Marseilles. In September 1909, he is elected with the board of directors of the Bourse du Travail.

Propagandist of revolutionary ideas & antimilitarism, he animates the C.D.S (Comité de défense sociale), & participates in all the social & political agitation, supporting the creation of a committed & fascinating theatre involved with many strikes in 1913-14.

But, stung by the anarchists who reproach him for having become a "trade-union civil servant", Durand apparently withdrew from the struggles after the declaration of WWI.


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Clifford Harper photo, source
1949 -- [July 13] Clifford Harper, illustrator, publisher, anarchist.
Expelled from school at 13 & placed on probation at 14, after which he worked in a series of "menial jobs." An activist in the London squatting & commune scene during the late 60s onwards, he became a self-taught artist. Throughout the 70s he was a prolific illustrator for many radical & alternative publications such as Undercurrents, Cienfuegos Press Anarchist Review, & his self-published Class War Comix project. Heavily influenced by comic books, Eric Gill & the narrative woodcuts of Frans Masereel, Harper's style evolved in the 1980s into a bolder, more expressionist direction.


photo courtesy of Ephéméride anarchiste

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1952 -- [July 13] Dr. Marie Equi (1872-1952), a lesbian anarchist
Equi was sent to prison during WWI for sedition (as were countless others opposing American involvement in one of Europe's bloodiest wars) under a newly amended Espionage Act.

The law "forbade criticism of the U.S. government, the constitution, the military, the flag, navy or uniform."

At her trial, Special Agent William Bryon of the Dept. of Justice, called her "an anarchist, a degenerate, & an abortionist."

At the end of the trial, the U.S. prosecutor, Barnett Goldstein, contemptuously referred to her as an "unsexed woman" in a thinly-veiled comment on her lesbianism.

She demanded an apology, protesting that "a man born in Russia should sit in judgement of an American born woman." During the next year & a half, her attorneys fought vainly to have her conviction overturned.

.... show details

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1877 -- [July 14] US: A series of railroad strikes sweeps through seventeen states in response to wage reductions, irregular pay practices, & generally poor conditions.

In Pittsburgh, Baltimore, & other cities, local police, state militia, & federal troops clash with strikers & sympathizers, evoking widespread support for the strikers. Gompers later refers to the railroad strike of 1877 as "the tocsin that sounded a ringing message of hope to us all."

It was with the violent U.S. railway strike of 1877, which took a near insurrectionary character, that Peter Kropotkin began to seriously consider the revolutionary potential of trade unionism. This increasingly sympathetic position was further reinforced when he visited Spain for six weeks in the summer of 1878. According to Max Nettlau, Kropotkin derived a new inspiration from his rediscovery of the revolutionary spirit of the old International in Spain which seemed to have disappeared from among the trade unionists in England, Belgium & the Jura [11]. It was after his visit to Spain that Kropotkin began to urge a more clearly defined policy of revolutionary action — both inside & outside the trade unions — on the Jura Federation.

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1896 -- [July 14] Spain: Legendary Spanish anarchist leader Buenaventura Durruti

Durruti with comrades

"We know what we want. To us it means nothing that there is a Soviet Union somewhere in the world, for the sake of whose peace & tranquillity the workers of Germany & China were sacrificed to Fascist barbarians by Stalin. We want revolution here in Spain, right now, not maybe after the next European war. We are giving Hitler & Mussolini far more worry with our revolution than the whole Red Army of Russia. We are setting an example to the German & Italian working class on how to deal with Fascism...

"We have always lived in slums & holes in the wall. We will know how to accommodate ourselves for a time. For, you must not forget, we can also build. It is we the workers who built these palaces & cities here in Spain & in America & everywhere. We, the workers, can build others to take their place. & better ones! We are not in the least afraid of ruins. We are going to inherit the earth; there is not the slightest doubt about that. The bourgeoisie might blast & ruin its own world before it leaves the stage of history. We carry a new world here, in our hearts. That world is growing this minute."

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1921 -- [July 14] Sacco & Vanzetti

The Last Days Remembered: A Compatriot Recalls the Deaths of Sacco & Vanzetti in 1927

by Aldino Felicani/Dean Albertson

The emotional & highly publicized case of Nicola Sacco & Bartolomeo Vanzetti became a touchstone & rallying cry for American radicals. In 1920 the two Italian immigrants were accused of murder & although the evidence against them was flimsy, they were readily convicted, in large part because they were immigrants & anarchists. They were executed, despite international protests, on August 23, 1927.

Aldino Felicani, printer & publisher of the anarchist paper Controcorrente, was a long-time acquaintance of Sacco & Vanzetti; in 1920 he organized the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee. In this interview with Dean Albertson, recorded in 1954, Felicani recalled his relationships with the accused men & his work on the defense committee. His story gave a sense of the emotion of the last days of Sacco & Vanzetti.

Listen to Audio

“They Are Dead Now”: Eulogy for Sacco & Vanzetti

Novelist John Dos Passos became deeply involved in the case after he visited Sacco & Vanzetti in Massachusetts prisons. In the fall of 1920 he joined the Sacco-Vanzetti Defense Committee. The case & execution were commemorated in an outpouring of literary expression. John Dos Passos’s “They Are Dead Now—” appeared in the New Masses, October 1927. A stark poem that repudiated its own form as inadequate to the subject, it opened “This isn’t a poem.” In the poem, the executions ended the dreams not only of Sacco & Vanzetti, but those of many others who had followed the trials with disbelief & outrage.

This isn’t a poem
This is two men in grey prison clothes.
One man sits looking at the sick flesh of his hands—hands that haven’t worked for seven years.
Do you know how long a year is?
Do you know how many hours there are in a day
when a day is twenty-three hours on a cot in a cell,
in a cell in a row of cells in a tier of rows of cells
all empty with the choked emptiness of dreams?
Do you know the dreams of men in jail?
They are dead now
The black automatons have won.
They are burned up utterly
their flesh has passed into the air of Massachusetts their dreams have passed into the wind.
“They are dead now,” the Governor’s secretary nudges the Governor,
“They are dead now,” the Superior Court Judge nudges
the Supreme Court Judge,
“They are dead now” the College President nudges
the College President
A dry chuckling comes up from all the dead:
The white collar dead; the silkhatted dead;
the frockcoated dead
They hop in & out of automobiles
breathe deep in relief
as they walk up & down the Boston streets.
they are free of dreams now
free of greasy prison denim
their voices blow back in a thousand lingoes
singing one song
to burst the eardrums of Massachusetts
Make a poem of that if you dare!

—John Dos Passos, “They Are Dead Now,”
New Masses, October 1927, 228–229.

... show more

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1942 -- [July 14] Sébastien Faure

Sébastien Faure

Sébastien Faure advocated what he called an 'Anarchist Synthesis' in which individualism, libertarian communism & anarcho-syndicalism could co-exist.

In 1921 he was the leading French anarchist critic against the growing Communist dictatorship in the Soviet Union, & during the 30s a prominent member of the International League of Fighters for Peace.

In 1940 Faure took refuge from the war in Royan (near Bordeaux), where he died.

Faure wrote for numerous papers & journals, & along with books he wrote, he initiated the important four volume l'Encyclopédie Anarchiste.

See the Daily Bleed's Anarchist Encyclopediapage.

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1975 -- [July 14] Jehan Mayoux dies. Teacher, pacifist, antimilitarist, anarchist

Refused mobilization in 1939 which cost him his teaching certificate & earned him five years of prison. Escapes during a bombing, captured by Germans, & sent to a camp in the Ukraine. Reinstated as a teacher after the war, he becomes friends with the Surrealist poet Benjamin Péret.
"It was in the black mirror of anarchism that surrealism first recognised itself."

— Andre Breton, 1952

Opposing the war with Algeria, Mayoux signs the "Proclamation of the 121" & cannot teach again for five years (1960-1965).

Participated in the movement of May 68, but is nauseated by the attitude of the trade unions.

Today he dies, faithful still to his libertarian ideals, leaving a beautiful poetic body of work, which include "My head to be crossed" (1939) & "To the screen of the night" (1948).

.... show details

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1981 -- [July 14] US: The Commission on Wartime Relocation & Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) investigation into the internment of Japanese Americans during Workd War II.

Similar hearings would be held in many other cities throughout the rest of 1981. The emotional testimony by Japanese American witnesses about their wartime experiences would prove cathartic for the community & might be considered a turning point in the redress movement. In all, some 750 witnesses testify. The last hearing takes place at Harvard University on December 9, 1981.

June 16, 1983 The CWRIC issues its formal recommendations to Congress concerning redress for Japanese Americans interned during World War II. They include the call for $20,000 individual payments for those who spent time in the concentration camps & are still alive.

August 10, 1988 H.R. 442 is signed into law by President Ronald Reagan. It provides for individual payments of $20,000 to each surviving internee & a $1.25 billion education fund among other provisions.

October 9, 1990 The first nine redress payments are made at a Washington, D.C. ceremony. One hundred seven year-old Rev. Mamoru Eto of Los Angeles is the first to receive his check.


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1886 -- [July 15] Charles Gallo

"I was certain to get a speculator or a tripotor who speculates in the misery of the people. I threw the bottle (of hydrocyanic acid), unfortunately I did not kill anybody."

On March 5, 1886, the 27-year-old anarchist Charles Gallo tossed a bottle of hydrocyanic acid into the Exchange, but rather than explode, it spreads a bad stink & sets off a panic. Gallo then draws a revolver & randomly fires five shots without hitting anyone. In court on June 26, 1886, his attitude creates a sensation: Gallo insists on making fun of the law, & shouts to the jury, ,

"Vive the social Revolution! Long Live anarchy! Long Live dynamite!"

He was sent to the penal colony in New Caledonia where, not to be humbled, he revolts yet again, against his jailers.

Cited, Ephéméride Anarchiste,

& also,

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1892 -- [July 15] Walter Benjamin

But it is precisely modernity that is always quoting primeval history. This happens through the ambiguity attending the social relationships & products of this epoch.

Ambiguity is the pictorial image of dialectics, the law of dialectics seen at a standstill. This standstill is utopia & the dialectical image therefore a dream image.

Such an image is presented by the pure commodity: as fetish. Such an image are the arcades, which are both house & stars. Such an image is the prostitute, who is saleswoman & wares in one.

— Walter Benjamin, Reflections

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1920 -- [July 15] Russia: July 15-August 6, Eight-member expedition for Petrograd Museum of the Revolution, including Henry Alsberg, travels through the Ukraine.
Emma Goldman & Alexander Berkman are given responsibility for collecting materials from education, health, social welfare, & labor bureaus.

They discover alarming poverty & overt criticism of the Bolshevik regime, but are hesitant to condemn publicly the Soviet experiment until they have more evidence.

Travel to Kursk, a large industrial center: In Kharkov they meet anarchists they worked with in the US, including Aaron & Fanya Baron, Mark Mratchny, & Senya Fleshin. Tour factories, a concentration camp, & a prison, where they meet an anarchist political prisoner. Receive plea to aid Nestor Makhno's movement, but are reluctant to discontinue their museum work.

As they learn more & more of Bolshevik misdeeds, they become reluctant to obtain any position directly accountable to the Bolshevik regime, agreeing to work for the museum because the extensive travel allows them to study Russian conditions with the least interference from the Bolsheviks.

alt; Nestor Machno

Cited, Ephéméride Anarchiste,

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1998 -- [July 15] Vicente Ruiz (1913-1998), Spanish-Australian anarchist
One of the last direct links that Australia's anarchists had with those who participated in the anarchist inspired social revolution. After the collapse of the Spanish Revolution he & his family lived in exile in Algeria, Morocco & eventually arrived in Australia in 1965 & became involved in the re-emerging anarchist movement.

Source, Anarchist Age Weekly Review 22nd July 1998.

See also:

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1900 -- [July 16] Alexander Berkman's prison escape is discovered.

Alexander Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison for his attempt to assassinate Henry Frick, although his act, under Pennsylvania law only called for seven years in prison.

He edited the journal Prison Blossoms with Henry Bauer & Carl Nold from inside Western Penitentiary & sent correspondence to several anarchist papers including Firebrand & Solidarity.

In 1900, with the help of Emma Goldman, Eric Morton ("...Morton whom we had nicknamed "Ibsen." He was a veritable viking, in spirit & physique," Emma notes) & others, he organized an escape; the plan was to tunnel into the prison & rescue Berkman. While Emma was in Paris awaiting his escape, the tunnel was discovered & thus the effort abandoned.

The Berkman Defense Association, formed shortly after Berkman's imprisonment to work for his release, a reduction in his sentence, at one time served as a cover to raise funds for his tunnel escape.

Harry Gordon, Henry Bauer, Carl Nold, Ed Brady, Harry Kelly & Emma were the driving forces behind these efforts.


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1882 -- [July 17] Australia: Australasian Secular Association (ASA) founded, Melbourne.
anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2008

As in the USA & England, Free Thought in Australia encompassed breaks with 'traditional' thinking in areas besides religion.

With Melbourne as its chief location the Australasian Secular Association [ASA] was a major Free Thought initiative. It was established on 17 July 1882 by James Donovan, Thomas Walker & others. As president, chief lecturer & editor of its journal, "The Liberator," the Association had, from February 1884, Joseph Symes who came to Melbourne from England. The first Symes' editorial, 1 June 1884, began with a pronouncement any anarchist would have rejoiced to see:

This paper is started in the interests of freedom, not licence, not lawlessness, but such freedom as is consistent with the rights of all.

In a very short time a youngish band of free thinkers rebelled against the restrictions of organised Free Thought itself, one result of which was the Melbourne Anarchist Club (MAC).

Almost all the executive positions on the Liberator Publishing Coy at its launch, as were ASA posts throughout its early years, were filled by men who later turned to anarchism, the most prominent being the Andrade brothers (David & Will ), Fred Upham, Donovan & George Newberry. Other secularists who went from the ASA to play prominent parts in anarchist history included John William ("Chummy") Fleming, Rose Stone, William McNamara & John Andrews.


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1997 -- [July 17] Italy: Cops raid anarchist centers & homes across the country...
At least 29 arrest warrants were issued & at least 39 people were informed that they were under official investigation.

Of these some were already in jail: Antonio Budini, Carlo Tesseri, Jean Weir & Christos Stratigopolus since September 1994 for a bank robbery near Trento; Orlando Campo, Gregorian Gargarin, Francesco Porcu for the Silocchi kidnapping; Horst Fantazzini (since 25 years) for many robberies & assault; & Marco Camenisch for bombings. In all it looks like some 68 people have been implicated by the police in this supposed "terrorist" gang.

Twenty one anarchists were apprehended between Sept. 17, 1996, & the end of December, while eight went underground.

On December 18 two of those arrested were sentenced to 22 years in prison.

... show more

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1917 -- [July 18] Brazil: Beginning of citywide General Strike in Rio de Janeiro. Includes furniture workers, tailors, shoemakers, bread carriers, textile workers, metal workers.

Sao Paulo was the beginning to the strikes of 1917.

News of the unrest was not slow to reach Rio de Janeiro. When descriptions of the strikes reached one furniture worker on the morning of July 18, he immediately walked off the job calling for a strike at his factory; two others workers joined him. By the afternoon of July 18, only 150 workers had walked out in solidarity with the strikers of Sao Paulo. On July 19, five factories were on strike & the movement was growing uncontrollably.

On July 22, the F.O.S.P. of Rio de Janeiro called for a general strike. To their surprise 50,000 workers went on strike on the morning of July 23. Later in the afternoon of July 23, 20,000 metal workers walked out in solidarity with the factory workers. The demands for all the workers were universal; an eight hour work day & a 20% wage increase. This was a textbook spontaneous general strike & all of industrial Brazil was stopped & in control of the workers.
See also

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Timeline icon
1939 --
[July 18] Spain:

anarchist diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2008 Juan Nieto Martínez («El Cuco») escapes from the prison at Gérgal (Almeria), along with "Carahermosa" & several others. 'CUCO" ( Juan Nieto Martínez ). Fugado de la prisión habilitada de Gérgal (Almería) el 18 de julio de 1939, en compañía de «Carahermosa» y varios más.

Nieto then formed a guerrilla group, with "Carahermosa" as his first lieutenant. They operated in the mountain ranges of southern Spain (primarily around Almeria in the Andalusia region), until 1947-48, when increasing efforts to capture or kill them forced the group to seek an escape to northern Africa. Most were able to effect their escape despite a number of dramatic shoot-outs with the Guardia Civil.

Among others, Nieto's group included «Alvarillo», Juan Alonso Sáez «Compadre», Jose Jurado, Antonio Beltrán, Francisco Bonilla Barrionuevo «El Francés», José García Hernández «Alcubillero» (killed in 1943, along with Juan Membrive Membrive).

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1907 -- [July 19] Spain: José Xena Torrent lives, à Cassá de la Selva village de Catalogne. Militant Catalan anarcho-syndicalist.

With the brothers Ascaso, Buenaventura Durruti, Juan García Oliver, etc., he formed the "Los Solidarios" group. Member of the C.N.T. & of the F.A.I. A combatant in Barcelona on July 19, 1936, in the street battles, & a regional secretary of the F.A.I.

In France he was involved with Germinal Esgleas, Federica Montseny, Germinal de Sousa, García Oliver & others, in reconstituting the "Consejo general del Movimiento Libertario" in exile.

Imprisoned by the fascists until March 1940, he then moved his family & settled in Venezuela. There Xena continued his libertarian activities, with the Centre Culturel de Caracas, until his death, May 14, 1988.

[Go to Daily Bleed entry]

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1936 -- [July 19] The Spanish Revolution...
The Revolution of July 19, 1936, was a lightning defensive action by the people to counter the pronunciamento of Franco.

The industrialists & large landowners immediately abandoned their property & took refuge abroad. The workers & peasants took over this abandoned property, the agricultural day laborers decided to continue cultivating the soil on their own. They associated together in "collectives" quite spontaneously.

In Catalonia a regional congress of peasants was called together by the CNT on September 5 & agreed to the collectivization of land under trade union management & control.

Large estates & the property of fascists were to be socialized, while small landowners would have free choice between individual property & collective property. Legal sanction came later: on October 7, 1936, the Republican central government confiscated without indemnity the property of "persons compromised in the fascist rebellion." This measure was incomplete from a legal point of view, since it only sanctioned a very small part of the take-overs already carried out spontaneously by the people; the peasants had carried out expropriation without distinguishing between those who had taken part in the military putsch & those who had not.

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1923 -- [July 20] Pancho Villa ambushed

Having put down his arms for land & amnesty, Pancho Villa, 55, is ambushed by political enemies. His death is variously listed as June 20th (New York Times & Compton's), July 20th & the July 23rd. Most sources agree on July 20.

With his death the legend of Pancho Villa did not fade but grew to mythic proportions. Pancho Villa was seen by the people as a Mexican Robin Hood of those times.Always supporting vague ideas of land & educational reform, Villa represented for the people a regional patriotism which found expression for years to come in corridos (songs) & cries of "Viva Villa."

Daily Bleed Saint, June 5

Inspired hero of the Mexican Revolution, or "social bandit," depending on your point of view.

See also:"Pancho+Villa"

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1921 -- [July 21] 500 fascists arrive at the railway station in Sarzana, Italy. Fired upon by a detachment of a dozen Carabinieri & soldiers, as well as workers & Arditi, leaving over 20 fascists dead

Events at Sarzana in June drew particular attention to the resistance being mounted by the Arditi . The fascists had mounted a punitive expedition against the town on June 12th 1921 but had met with such determined resistance that they had to surrender & their leader Renato Ticci was put in custody, for his own safety, by the local authorities. Consequently several fascist gangs assembled to try & free him & teach the people of Sarzana a lesson.

However, on 21st July, when 500 fascists arrived at the railway station they had the unusual (for them) experience of being fired on by a detachment of a dozen Carabinieri & soldiers. As if this unexpected turn of events wasn't bad enough they then came under armed attack from the Arditi, supported by other Sarzana workers, who had not gone to work that morning in anticipation of the attack.

As their casualties mounted the fascists were forced to flee into the countryside. But they were not safe even here, with the Arditi on their heels & the peasants of the area taking an active role in their pursuit & capture.

Over 20 fascists were killed, although unofficial sources put the figure much higher. The fascist "chief of staff" for this expedition later commented:

"The squadre, so long accustomed to defeating an enemy who nearly always ran away or offered feeble resistance, could not, & did not know how to, defend themselves".

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Mujeres Libres
1936 -- [July 21] Spain: Central Anti-Fascist Militias Committee (CAMC) founded in Catalonia. No workers' organization takes power.

In Barcelona, local federations of the C.N.T. (the largest & most powerful union in Spain) of Catalonia joined together in a plenum, refusing to speak about anarchist-communism so long as the fascist threat weighs upon Spain.

In refusing to counter the power of the "Generalitat", as incarnated in Luis Companys, & in approving "democratic collaboration" because of various arguments about effectiveness & conciliation, the anarcho-syndicalist union allowed the germ of counter-revolution to develop & corrupt the future of the Spanish Revolution. Collaborationists were tagged with the appellative 'Pajaros Carpinteros'.

This evening the establishment of a "Central Committee of the Militia" among various left forces becomes reality.

I see the unwritten books, the unrecorded experiments,
The unpainted pictures, the interrupted lives,
Lowered into the graves with the red flags over them.
I see the quick gray brains broken & clotted with blood,
Lowered each in its own darkness, useless in the earth.
Alone on a hilltop in San Francisco suddenly
I am caught in a nightmare, the dead flesh
Mounting over half the world presses against me.

Kenneth Rexroth, excerpt, "Requim for the Spanish Dead"

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1987 -- [July 21] When "New Age Rightist" Stephen Schwartz discovered graffiti calling him "the philosophical whore of North Beach," the former Trotskyite turned red with rage.

Steven Schwartz goes on trial to assert his write to announce, via anti-graffiti, that he is not "the philosophical whore of North Beach", in Frisco, California.

One-time IWW member, self-described internationally recognized surrealist poet, band manager for The Dils, one of San Francisco's best early punk bands. He'd written the song "Class War" for The Dils & written articles in the punk scene paper Search & Destroy under the name Nico Ordway. Now Schwartz was employed by the Sailors Union of the Pacific to write the official union history, in time for its hundredth anniversary the following year.

He uncapped his felt-tipped pen & was printing a reply to the scurrilous scribblings when he was busted by Mayor Feinstein's anti-graffiti police squad on a charge of malicious mischief, defacing the wall of a Vallejo Street construction site.

Schwartz...has demanded a trial to exonerate his exercise of free speech.

"I was just going to answer that I was not the philosophical whore of North Beach," said Schwartz, 37.

If he wants a trial, he can have it, said Assistant District Attorney Joseph Hoffman, who believes citizens have the right to speak out under the First Amendment–but with limits.

"The remedy is that he can stand on a street corner & yell all he wants that he's not the philosophical whore of North Beach," Hoffman said. "But he can't go around defacing other people's property."

Municipal Judge George Chopelas Wednesday set July 21 for trial. If convicted, Schwartz faces six months in the county jail & a $1,000 fine...Quoting Schwartz's attorney, Carlos Bea, "We don't think this is what the mayor meant in her anti-graffiti campaign. In fact, it's a sad day when a person can't rebut in public the allegation that he's a philosophical whore of North Beach."

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1877 -- [July 22] US: General Strike in St. Loius, labor unrest across the country...
The year was 1877. A young union, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, were organizing railroad engine-men nationally. The railroad companies including the Philadelphia & Reading were entering into the coal mining business.

In the springtime of the year, many of the railroads including the P&R slashed the wages of the workers by 10 percent. There were rumors of a strike. Without any warning approximately 350 Reading engineers walked off the job. They were quickly replaced by scabs. The union then demanded that all the railroads in the eastern part of the country restore the 10 percent cut and come up with a 20 percent increase. The general-manager of the P&R informed the employees if they did not desert the union they would be fired. Some workers went back to the job. But many others became much more militant.
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1882 -- [July 22] Hélio Oiticica....
"Hélio Oiticica was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1937. He was the son of an entomologist who was also a photographer & painter, & the grandson of a philologist & anarchist leader. He was both artist & thinker.

Positioning himself audaciously between the avant-garde, Brazilian popular culture, the realities of Third World ‘underdevelopment’ & '60s radicalism, he came to reflect deeply on the issues concerning ‘art’, ‘invention’, & "freedom" in modern conditions.

Oiticica was not interested in a conventional artistic career and never had a dealer. Most of his surviving work belongs to a foundation set up by his family & friends after his death in 1980 & can be seen today at the Centro Cultural HO in Rio.

Hélio Oiticica thought of all his activities as experimental, ‘proposals’, & as often as not he worked collaboratively, being fastidious to credit every person who worked with him in whatever capacity. He is now recognized as one of the most important artists of the second half of the twentieth century."

Written by Guy Brett, noted London art critic & contributor to the publication "Helio Oiticica", Rotterdam & Paris, 1992.

Further details/ context, click here[Further details / context]"Hélio+Oiticica"

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André Bösiger
1913 -- [July 22] André Bösiger lives, Jura, Bernois. Swiss anarchist, a member of the ligue d'action du bâtiment (L.A.B), & associated with Luigi Bertoni ("Réveil Anarchiste") & Lucien Tronchet.

The L.A.B practiced sabotage & direct action, countering recalcitrant landlords & assisting unemployed workers being evicted from their homes.

In November 1932, Bösiger was part of an antifascist protest demonstration, along with thousands of others, when the Swiss army opened fire on the crowd, killing 13 demonstrators & wounding 100.

Bösiger was a founder of the CIRA in 1957, & wrote an autobiography, Souvenirs d'un rebelle.


"J'ai vécu heureux toute ma vie et le serai jusqu'au bout, car elle a toujours eu un sens qui ne m'a jamais échappé".

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1920 -- [July 22] Chile: Police raid the Santiago IWW headquarters. In Valparaiso, police plant dynamite in the Wobbly hall & arrest most of the IWW organizers for terrorism.

orange diamond dingbatThe reasons for these raid was the successful strikes against the exportation of grains during the famine. Through the summer of 1920 the Chilean union conducted a three month strike to prevent the export of grains from the country at a time when this export was producing famine & famine prices & profits.

orange diamond dingbat1924 4000 Santiago IWW bookbinders win strike for 44 hour week.

orange diamond dingbat1925 when the unions representing Port, printing & bakeries split to form the anarcho-syndicalist Federation Obrerra Regionale Chile (FORCh).

orange diamond dingbatThe IWW was the only labor group to openly oppose the military coup of 1927.

orange diamond dingbatBoth unions were silenced in 1927 by the Ibanez dictatorship. In 1931, the Ibanez government fell & former IWW & FORCh members formed a new anarcho-syndicalist union, the CGT.

orange diamond dingbatAfter the military coup of 1973, an American IWW, Frank Terrugi, was shot to death by a Chilean death squad. Terrugi, in Chile studying workers movements, had been detained in a soccer stadium during the coup with hundreds of other radicals & unionists. He was found dead soon after he had been 'released" from the soccer stadium/prison. Turrugi is the sidekick to the missing American being sought by his father in the Oscar winning Costa Gavras film, "Missing".
Source: A Brief History of the IWW outside the US (1905-1999) by Morgan Miller
Background & more on the Chilean workers' movement,

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1960 -- [July 22] Centro de Estudos Professor José Oiticica officially (legally) established...
No Rio de Janeiro, com o falecimento de José Oiticica em 1957, três militantes libertários tiveram a idéia de formar o Centro de Estudos Professor José Oiticica, na sala onde o mestre dava aulas, à Av. Almirante Barroso, 6-sala 1.101. Nos dias seguintes os três realizaram uma reunião na Avenida 13 de Maio, 23, sala 922, e resolveram procurar companheiros afastados do movimento por razões diversas e convidá-los para fazer parte do centro e subscrever sua ata de legalização em 22 de julho de 1960.

(O centro começou suas atividades em 1958) Em 1969, um "punhado" de militares da aeronáutica rebentaram a porta aos coices, carregaram parte do acervo cultural, máquina de escrever, mimiógrafo e outros objetos "subversivos", depois foram nas moradias dos diretores do centro, "confiscaram livros, etc.", prenderam-nos e formaram um processo contra 16, impernunciando um. Torturaram alguns detidos e finalmente levaram-nos a um julgamento que durou até 1972. O Centro de Estudos do Professor José Oiticica, durante sua existência (12 anos), fundou a Editora Mundo Livre por cotas, editou cinco livros, promoveu curso sobre Anarquismo no Teatro Carioca, recebeu anarquistas da América e da Europa, conduziu várias campanhas de protesto e apoio, realizou mais de uma centena de cursos e conferências, e parte de suas atividades foram anunciadas pela imprensa. Acabou por força da ditadura militar.óriaSocialEdgarRodrigues/BrasilAn.html

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1920 -- Àngel Pestaña & Red Trade Union International ...

Angel Pestana book titleÀngel Pestaña (Santo Tomás de las Ollas,1886 - Barcelona, 1937): Spanish anarcho-syndicalist, CNT National Secretary, wanting a politically 'neutral' union movement.

... more

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1927 -- The anarchosyndikalistische "Gegenkultur"
The "Gegenkultur" forms a network of the most diffuse currents & unions, branched out far.
In the guild of the liberal book friends, the syndicalist women federations, the anarcho-syndicalist youth, the anti-authoritarian children's movement, the cooperative & settlement projects, as well as in the anti-fascist 'black crowds', sexual reform & free-love movements & the entire left culture movement of the Weimar Republic are documented in their contact with the FAUD, as a yardstick reflecting itself..

The FAUD(S) emerged as a principled, nonviolent organization capable of change & adaptation. It never fully integrated anarchism & syndicalism but accommodated their often opposing cultural & labor strategies for revolution. It drew support from a core of highly skilled artisans in well-defined trades, but between 1918 & 1924 also attracted industrial workers disillusioned with the Marxist parties.

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Anarchy Man!! dingbat
1936 -- [July 23 (or 24th?)] Spain: Two militia columns leave Barcelona to liberate Zaragoza, safeguarding & extending the establishment of anarchist communism in Aragon. [I have conflicting dates to resolve — ed.]

Durruti Column | Iron Column

The first column was composed almost entirely of anarchist militiamen, & was over 1,000 strong. Its number soon increased to between 8,000 & 10,000. It was by far the largest & strongest unit on the anti-Fascist side. They were all volunteers & mostly anarchists, anarchist sympathisers & members of the CNT.

By the beginning of August, Durruti's column is within sight of Saragossa.

Saragossa is captured & Aragon freed from Fascist control. Moreover, in the words of Hewetson, Durruti "laid the foundations of the great advance into Aragon, which established the front & safeguarded the revolutionary peasant collectives on which the food supply of Catalonia depended".

Source: 'Calendar Riots' & | See also Durruti Column |

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Filareto Kavernido, anarchist
1880 -- [July 24] Filareto Kavernido lives (1880-1933), Berlin. Pseudonym for Henrich Goldberg. Gynaecologist, Nietzschéen, communist-anarchist, pacifist, Idisti, & follower of "Milieux libres". Has a command of languages (French, English, Italian) & is a passionate advocate of Esperanto. Ido novelo La Raupo.

Filareto Kavernido founds “Kaverno di Zaratustra,” a libertarian commujnist community, in post-war Berlin. Scandalized by its practice of free love & of nudity — & Kavernido apparently practicing abortions (then illegal) — the colony soon moves to France, then Corsico, then Haiti &, finally, settles in the Dominican Republic. Unfortunately with Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Trujillo, the brutal & hated dictator, running the country with an iron fist, Filareto is eventually arrested with his Mally partner & her children, on May 16, 1933, by two pistoleros & he is shot shorty afterwards, assassinated in 1933 under circumstances still which remain unclear.

Kavernido is mentioned in numerous publications, among others by Max Fürst, Harry Wilde & U. Linse.

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1898 -- [July 25] Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader Uncle Sam invades & colonizes the tiny country of Puerto Rico, overthrowing the autonomous government & recolonizing the island

Nelson Miles (the same General Geronimo surrendered to in 1886) comes ashore with the first contingent of 16,000 American troops, landing unopposed at the town of Guánica in the South.

  • On June 25, the USS Yosemite arrived off San Juan harbor to blockade the port.
  • On July 18, Miles, commander of the invading forces, receives orders to sail for Puerto Rico.
  • On July 21, a convoy of 3,300 soldiers & nine transports escorted by the USS Massachusetts sails from Guantánamo, Cuba.
  • Upon arrival, the ship met with Spanish resistance the morning of August 26. By August, the whole island was practically invaded.
  • On August 8, the Spanish-American War, the conflict between the United States & Spain that ended Spanish colonial rule in the Americas, resulted in US imperialist acquisition of territories in the western Pacific & Latin American.

Funny how this works...

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1927 -- [July 25] Portuguese anarchist conference, relocated from Portugal, meets surreptitiously today & tomorrow, in Valencia, Spain. Founding of the FAI (Federación Anarquista Ibérica).

"The UAP congress was originally scheduled for June 20, 1926 in the Portuguese capital, but on 28 May (23 days ahead of its scheduled opening) a military coup in Portugal overthrew the democratic government & "blocked the way" to the Portuguese & Spanish anarchists.
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1966 -- anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010 [July 25] Henri Quesnel dies. Anarchist.

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1953 -- [July 26] Cuba: Boris Santa Coloma killed during the celebrated Castro-led attack on the Moncada Barracks.

anarchist diamond dingbat

Our hall was raided many times by the Batista police. Shootings took place. Comrades were arrested & brutally beaten. Books & organization records were confiscated. But in spite of all these atrocities, our movement, after truly heroic sacrifices, survived to carry on the struggle with undiminished dedication...
Literally hundreds of our Cuban comrades died, many were persecuted, tortured, driven into exile, murdered. Here are a few:

Aquila Iglesias; exiled. Alvarez y Barbieto, exiled. Miguel Rivas; disappeared. Roberto Bretau; prison. Manuel Gerona; prison. Rafael Serra; tortured. Modesto Barbieta, Maria Pinar Gonzalez, Dr. Pablo Madan, Placido Mendez, Eulegio Reloba & his sons, Abelardo Iglesias, Mario Garcia & his son: all of them in prison, tortured & in some cases barely escaping assassination. Isidro Moscu; imprisoned & left for dead after brutal tortures. With Moscu, a numerous group of comrades were also imprisoned & tortured for preparing an armed insurrection in the province of Pinar del Rio.

The Cuban anarchists were jailed, tortured, driven into exile by successive governments. The "communists" & the corrupt politicians powerfully backed by Machado & Batista, took advantage of the persecution of the anarchists to seize control of the labor movement. Now, again hounded & outlawed by the Castro dictatorship, the ranks of the anarcho-syndicalists have been reduced to a mere handful of dedicated militants. The Cuban anarcho-syndicalist movement has in a century of struggle written a glorious, indelible page in the history of the revolutionary movement, from which new generations of fighters will continue to draw inspiration.

1893 -- [July 27] After telling Ernie Lane he was off to blow up a non-union ship, Larry Petrie booked a passage on the S.S. 'Aramac'.

Australia: On board at midnight on 27 July near the entrance to Moreton Bay there was a tremendous explosion in the forecabin.

"The funny thing was" said Petrie some years later, "that the moment the bomb went off my first & only thought was to save people's lives."

Fortunately there was no need to save anyone. A pillar of flame shot through the roof of the cabin & two women nearby were slightly injured. Petrie's presence on deck immediately afterwards, especially since the companionway was blocked with debris, aroused suspicion, his 'fake' name did also, & he was arrested as soon as the ship berthed & charged with attempted murder.

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1896 -- [July 27] International Socialist Workers' & Trades Union Congress (July 27-Aug. 1)
PSOE logoThe Marxists pass a motion requiring the recognition & need for "political action" (in legislative & parliamentary voting) & finishes up totally excluding anarchists, & all anti-parliamentary Socialists, from any future congresses.

Among the various delegations are many anarchists, including Errico Malatesta, Ferdinand Domela Nieuwenhuis, Pietro Gori, Gustav Landauer, Kampffmeyer, Fernand Pelloutier, Paul Delesalle, Louise Michel, Peter Kropotkin, Élisée Reclus, & Jean Grave, etc.

See also below, regarding the hastily convened congress of anti-authoritarians (July 29-31) upon their exclusion.

1896 --
London, England

July 27 

The International Socialist Workers' & Trades Union Congress (July 27-Aug. 1).

When one of them, Paul Delesalle, tried to mount the rostrum, he was thrown violently to the bottom of the steps & injured. Jaures accused the anarchists of having transformed the trade unions into revolutionary anarchist groups & of disrupting them, just as they had come to the congress only to disrupt it, "to the great benefit of bourgeois reaction."

The German social-democratic leaders at the congress, the inveterate electoralists Wilhelm Liebknecht & August Bebel (When Gustave Landauer attended the 1893 Congress of the Social Democratic International, Bebel denounced him as a police agent), showed themselves as savage to the anarchists as they had been in the First International. Supported by Marx's daughter, Eleanor Aveling, who regarded the anarchists as "madmen," they had their own way with the meeting & got it to pass a resolution excluding from future congresses all "anti-parliamentarians" in whatever guise they might appear.

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1920 -- [July 28] Italy: Pasquale Binazzi is arrested & charged with having formed an armed gang.... In response to his arrest, workers initiate a General Strike

Binazzi, as a militant & publisher of the anarchist weekly magazine "Il Libertario", is often the target of excersised authorities.

"Il Libertario" is a vital part of the Italian trade union movement & agitation. It survives numerous repressive efforts until finally destroyed by the fascists when business interests hand over the country to Mussolini in 1922.

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1932 -- [July 28] US: Beloved & Respected Comrade Leader President Herbie Hoover forcibly evicts bonus marchers from their encampment. Two killed when U.S. Army attacks encampment of 20,000 World War I veterans gathered in Washington D.C. to demand their bonus benefit payments.
Yer Daveness.....

Fighting broke out between the Bonus Army & police & on July 28 federal troops attacked led by Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur & his subordinates Majors George S. Patton, Jr. & Dwight D. Eisenhower. MacArthur opted to use force over the protests of Patton & Eisenhower.

Using tear gas, cavalry with sabers drawn, & tanks the Bonus Army was driven out of their encampments in the abandoned buildings along Pennsylvania Avenue & the tanks then leveled the Bonus Army's "Camp Marks" on the Anacostia River. The casualty toll was four dead (including two infants) & 66 injured.

The smoke lingered over Washington for two days. Armed police from Maryland & Virginia had blocked all roads out of the District of Columbia until Pennsylvania offered asylum to the marchers in Johnstown.

— Bleedster Scott L
A minor riot occurs when policemen, under District Commission orders, clear some veterans out of unused old buildings on Pennyslvania Avenue.

Jittery police kill two veterans, but a riot is averted by Glassford's hurried arrival & calming words. Viewing the encampment at Anacostia Flats as a revolutionary threat to the American government, the administration decides that a state of insurrection exists.

Secretary of War, Patrick J. Hurley calls upon Army Chief of Staff Douglas MacArthur to use troops to clear out the veterans. MacArthur & his aide, Dwight D. Eisenhower set about to business.

Late in the afternoon, the veterans at Anacostia Flats see four troops of calvary with drawn sabers, six tanks, & a long column of infantry with fixed bayonets, gas masks & tear-gas bombs on their belts, bearing down on them. The troops pause for exactly one hour to permit escape.

Evening. The troops move into Anacostia Flats, setting fire to broken-down shacks & shanties as they move. Women & children scramble frantically from the path of soldiers, coughing & crying from the tear gas. Seven-year-old Eugene King tries to snatch his pet rabbit from his tent, but is bayoneted in the leg by a soldier & cursed at. Joe Angelo, a veteran from Camden, New Jersey, watches as cavalry officer George S. Patton leads his men in destroying his shack. (Angelo knows Patton well — he had saved the man's life on the Western Front years earlier.)

"I have released in my day more than one community
which had been held in the grip
of a foreign enemy."

— Douglas MacArthur

As the flames destroy the shantytown, people stream into Maryland. Behind them they leave the wounded & little Bernard Myers who dies in a Washington hospital from tear-gas inhalation.

During this month: As Hoover begins traveling the country for his re-election campaign, he is met with unexpected hatred. In St. Paul when he tells the audience,

"Thank God we still have a government
that knows how to deal with the mob,"

angry murmurs begin to roll up from the crowd in front of him. The Secret Service men guarding Hoover become alarmed. The President loses his place in the speech he is giving, nearly collapses, & retreats from the auditorium badly shaken.

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1870 -- anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010 [July 29] Paul Delesalle lives, (1870-1948). French militant anarchiste & revolutionary syndicalist.

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1896 --
London, England

July 29-31, 1896

Malatesta, graphic by Flavio Costantini, both Italian anarchists


Blinking owl dingbat, animated
International Anarchist Congress convenes after the Marxists take over the 2nd International Congress (July 27th) & force the anarchists & anti-parliamentary socialists out.

By Malatesta's intervention with the local Italians the rooms of a club in Frith Street, Soho, were secured, where the anti-parliamentarian & similar delegates met during the Congress. A very large meeting was held in Holborn Town Hall & the speakers were J. Presberg, J. Keir Hardie, Paul Reclus, C. Cornelissen, Tom Mann, Louise Michel, J. C. Kenworthy, Tortelier, Kropotkin, Bernard Lazare. Touzeau Parris, F. D. Nieuwenhuis, W. K. Hall, E. Malatesta, Pietro Gori, G. Landauer, Louis Gros (a Marseille syndicalist), & at the overflow meeting W. Wess, F. Kitz, S. Mainwaring, A. Hamon, P. Pawlowitsch (a Berlin anarchist metal worker).

From Malatesta's speech ("Freedom," Aug.-Sept., 1896) I quote:

Property will never be touched unless those who attack it proceed over the bodies of its defenders — the gendarmes. For these reasons we are against all governments, even those of social democrats. The gendarmes of Bebel, Liebknecht & Jaures always remain gendarmes. Whoever controls them will always he able to keep down & massacre the proletariat. So we will give this power to nobody — neither to social democrats nor to ourselves; for none in such a position could become anything but canailles (scamps). . . . Emancipate yourselves by organizing your own forces & you shall be free. But if you expect your liberation from any government — be it of charitable bourgeois, be it of social democrats — you will forever be lost."

Max Nettlau, Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist.

[Editor's note: Malatesta's prescience played out in 1917, when the German Social Democratic government murdered Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, & Landauer.]

Umberto of Italy is assassinated by Bresci; illus by Flavio Costantini
1900 -- [July 29] Italy: King Umberto of Italy is assassinated by Gaetano Bresci

Bread riots began in Milano on May 3, put down May 7-8 with heavy loss of life (Humbert decorates the General responsible for an appalling butchery that left over 300 dead).Source=Robert Braunwart

On May 9th, "Agitazione" was raided & henceforth, like all other anarchist papers in Italy, suppressed. Samaia, Lucchini, Vezzani & Lavattero left the country; Malatesta & others were arrested.

Further details/ context, click here[Details / context]

... more (in Italian)

Commoration at Bresci Grave stone

Mentre nella calda sera estiva la carrozza - Umberto ha già perduto conoscenza - si avvia a tutta andatura verso la villa, l'attentatore è portato in caserma. Non fa dichiarazioni. Solo dice il proprio nome. Chi è, dunque, Bresci?

Viva, viva il nostro Bresci

Autore: Sconosciuto                                    Anno  1900

Viva, viva il nostro Bresci, stato quello che lo ha ucciso e noi gridiamo sul suo viso:
viva, viva la libertà!

Sulla punta di quello stile
c 'eran scritte tre paroline:
vogliamo morto Umberto primo
e vogliamo la libertà...

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2000 -- [July 29] Goliardo Fiaschi (1930-2000), Italian anti-fascist & anarchist guerrilla, bookstore owner, dies.
His coffin was borne around the town on the shoulders of friends, followed by a band, & anarchists from all over Italy carrying red & black flags.

He was laid to rest beside Gino Lucetti & Steffano Vatteroni, both would-be assassins of Mussolini, & Giuseppe Pinelli, who was defenestrated by cops from police headquarters in Milan in 1969.

Such was the esteem in which Goliardo Fiaschi was held that even the ranks of Tuscany, in the person of the mayor of Carrara, could scarce forbear to cheer with a farewell notice, which ended with the words:

"Thanks, Goliardo!"

— from an obituary by Stuart Christie

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1913 -- [July 30] Clara Solomon lives; Pianist, Anarchist

OBITUARIES / Clara Solomon, 87, Pianist, Anarchist
( Newsday ); 12-22-2000

Clara Solomon, a pianist & music educator who linked several generations of the anarchist movement in America, died Wednesday at New York Weill Cornell Medical Center in Manhattan. She was 87 & lived in Rego Park.

For her lifelong political involvement, Solomon was profiled at length by Queens College historian Paul Avrich in his book "Anarchist Voices" & the radio stations WNYC/93.9 FM & WBAI/99.5 FM.

Born in New York on July 30, 1913, Solomon grew up primarily in the Stelton anarchist colony in Piscataway, N.J. & was educated in its experimental Modern School. The eldest child of Samuel Freedman, a garment-union activist who also served as business manager of the anarchist newspaper "Freie Arbeiter Stimme" (Free Voice of Labor), Solomon became active in the movement in her teens, once hitchhiking from New Jersey to Toronto to visit the anarchist leader Emma Goldman & in the 1930s agitating in support of anarchist revolutionaries in Spain. She met her future husband, Sidney Solomon, when he was drumming in an all-anarchist jazz band.

Although the anarchist movement dwindled in the United States, Solomon remained devoted to it long enough to figure in its modest revival in the 1990s as a mentor to a young generation of activists. She helped to found the Atlantic Anarchist Circle, a coalition of anarchists from Quebec to Washington, D.C.

Solomon began studying piano at age 7 & had graduated from Juilliard by 18. Over the years, she performed at such venues as Alice Tully Hall & Carnegie Recital Hall. She taught in the Adamant Music School in Vermont, the Dalton School & Little Red School House, both in Manhattan, & numerous settlement houses & community centers.

Solomon is survived by her husband, Sidney, & a son, Raymond, both of Queens; & two brothers, David of Highland Park, N.J., & Sigmund of New Brunswick, N.J. Her funeral is today at Parkside Memorial Funeral Home in Queens.

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1857 -- anarchiste diamond dingbat; new entry, remove 2010 [July 31] Adolphe Willette lives, anarchist.

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1864 -- [July 31] Brazilian anarchist Fabio Luz (Fabio Lopez dos Santos Luz)
Novelist & outstanding figure of Brazilian anarchism who discovered anarchism with the reading of Peter Kropotkin.

A militant anarchist, Fabio Luz collaborated actively in the libertarian press, publishing in the papers "A Luta Social" & "Revalução Social", participating in trade union conferences, & in "Centre d'Etudes Sociales" (founded in 1914).

A Doctor of Hygene, as well as a professor, Luz provided free educational evening courses for workers & also free medical consultations for the poor.

In 1904, in Rio de Janeiro, he helped found l'Université populaire, & continued publishing many novels, pieces for theatre, & such. His interests & activities were precursor to many movements, such as free love & revolution, hygiene, libertarian pedagogy & ecology. Became a member of "l'Académie Carioca de lettres."

Fabio Luz wrote d'Ideólogos, (1903), d'Os Emancipados, (1906), & Virgem-Mãe, (1908), the first novels in Brazil to tackle the social question.

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1881 -- [July 31] French militant individualist anarchist, & free love advocate, Anna Mahe lives (1881-1960)
Initially a teacher, Anna Mahe became, like her sister Armandine, the partner of the individualist anarchist Albert Libertad, with whom she took part in the "Causeries populaires" (1902). A free love partisan, she also began writing an "ortografe simplifiée", writing for libertarian papers prior to WWI -- "L'Anarchie", "Le Libertaire", "La Cravache," "Germinal," "Terre et liberté," etc -- & the booklet L'hérédité et l'Education" (1908).

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1901 -- [July 31] Jean Dubuffet lives (1901-1985), French anarchiste.

Musique phénoménale (Phenomenal Music), text by Asger Jorn accompanying the four albums of 'chaosmic music' written & recorded between December 1960 & February 1961 with Jean Dubuffet, Galleria del Cavallino, Venice.

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1963 --

[July31] Francisco Granados & Joaquín Delgado are brutally interrogated & wrongly executed.

Their protests of innocence & their deaths are hardly noticed, overshadowed by the earlier international commotion created by the dramatic deaths of the Communist Julian Grimau, on April 20, & the anarchist guerrilla Ramon Vila Capdevila ("Caraquemada") on the 11th of this month.

Granados & Delgado were accused of blowing up a pump on July 29, in the Main directorate of Seguridad (DGS) of Madrid — "symbol of the pro-Franco torture" — & another in the National Delegation of Unions.

They were brutally interrogated & condemned to death in a field court martial behind closed doors marked by legal irregularities.

Almost 33 years later, the actual authors of those explosions publicly testified to their responsibility for the attacks, revealing the sentences of both anarchists today nothing more than legalized murder by the dictatorship.

Thirty six years on, on 3 March 1999, under judgment No 7, the Military Division of the Supreme Court pronounced that the verdict in 1963 had been delivered in accordance with the 'prevailing legal disposition' & rejected the application for a review submitted by the relations of Granados & Delgado on 3 February 1998. On 16 April 1999, an application to appeal against the Supreme Court decision was made to the Constitutional Court. Petition on behalf of Granados & Delgado...

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2005 -- [July 31] France: René Bianco d'Acierno (??-2005) dies, Marseilles.

Son of an Italian immigrant, learned to read by reading his father's anarchist papers.

Took a degree in philosophy, then education, ultimately a professor of geography & history.

Active in local anarchist movement groups & activities, he was also part in a small clandestine group opposing the OAS & providing support to the rebellious Algerians, & supported Louis Lecoin's hunger strike for gaining exceptions for conscientious objectors (COs).

A cofounder of CIRA de Marseille. Continued his militant activies while resuming his education & produced the doctoral thesis "Un siècle de presse anarchiste d'expression française dans le monde 1880-1983" In 1979, he helped found the FICEDL.

Biographer of many anarchists in the "Dictionnaire biographique du mouvement ouvrier français" & author of several studies on people as various as Paraf-Javal, Han Ryner &Louise Michel, a history on the Commune of Marseilles, & anarchists in Provence & during Resistance, etc., most published for ""Bulletins du Cira".

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the Scary Ones, Neo-Con Death Quartet featuring George Bush
4500 --

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