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Additional Interesting Supplements


Alpha-Lipoic Acid (Thioctic Acid)

It is approved in Germany as a drug for the treatment of diabetic and alcoholic polyneuropathies and liver diseases. This acid is known for its antioxidant activity and it is thought that it may enhance biological energy production. Supplemental alpha-lipoic acid may lower blood glucose levels. It is not known if this acid is an effective anti-aging supplement in humans. In rat studies, it appears that it may be a safe and effective means to improve general metabolic activity and increase the body's antioxidant status. Doses up to 600mg/day are well tolerated in humans.

Bee Pollen

Some bee pollen extracts have been found to increase stamina and endurance. It also appears to lower blood lipid levels. These effects are probably due to the polyunsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins and trace minerals present in the bee pollen extracts. Persons with pollen-sensitive allergies may find bee pollen aggravating.


This is a digestive enhancing enzyme, usually made from pineapples (Ananas comosus). It may improve digestion and food adsorption, it may reduce mucus and inflamations and appears to speed wound healing. Bromelain is considered to only be second to Panax notoginseng root for speeding recovery from athletic training. NOTE: do not use while taking anticoagulants.

Chondroitin sulfate

This chemical appears to promote and help maintain the function and structure of joint cartilage. It also appears to have an anti-inflammatory activity and seems to relieve pain in osteoarthritis. It is often used together with glucosamine.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

Originally called "Ubiquinone" (the ubiquitous quinone), I did not at first make the connection, in the 1980s, when I was asked about the wonders of CoQ10.

CoQ10 is part of the aerobic oxidative cycle in which carbohydrates, fatty acids and some amino acids produce cellular energy. CoQ10 also helps regulate the mitochondrial enzymes. However, its best known function is in myocardial metabolism. If CoQ10 levels in the heart drop to 25% of normal, the heart stops. Cardiac patients have been shown to have low levels of CoQ10, about 20-44% of normal. Japanese and other research studies have shown that CoQ10 supplements given for at least 30 days, can be beneficial in congestive heart failure patients. CoQ10 can also be useful in other types of heart disease and hypertension.

Further research has shown CoQ10 is, in addition, of therapeutic value in enhancing the immune function and healing periodontal disease. Care should be taken if one is taking "blood thinners" -- ask your M.D.

CoQ10 is found in many food stuffs and is also biosynthesized in mammalian tissues. The "normal" supplemental dosage is 30mg per day, although higher levels have been used in severe heart disease (in the range of 90-120mg per day).

DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone)

Oral DHEA has weak adrogenic activity. DHEA is considered a drug in Canada and the United Kingdom. NOTE: "There is no credible evidence that DHEA can burn fat and build lean muscle mass, that it can boost sexual performance or that it can fight cancer, heart disease, fatigue, diabetes, osteoporosis and aging itself" - PDR Nutritional Supplements page 129 (2001). There is some evidence that even low doses of DHEA - 25 mg/day may decrease the HDL ("good") cholesterol.


Glucosamine seems to play a role in the promotion and maintenance of the function and structure of joint cartilage. It is thought also to be an anti-inflammatory. Often used together with chondroitin sulfate. NOTE: Glucosamine may increase insulin resistance.


Glutathione is not easily absorbed by your body, so to increase your levels of glutathione it is preferable to take a derivative of one of its metabolic precursors and "trick" your body into producing more glutathione. (The makers of the highly priced glutathione products will hate me!)

Glutathione is incorrectly, sometimes called an amino acid. It is in fact a tripeptide, composed of the three amino acids - glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine.

Glutathione is protective against cellular damage caused by such agents as free radicals, it is involved in the recycling and regeneration of Vitamins C and E, after they have functioned as antioxidants and it also plays a role in the functioning of our immune systems.

WARNING: It should always be remembered that people who eat healthy diets and are in good health should not require supplements of any sort. Those who are ill should seek help from competent physicians and also disclose to them any known allergies, herbal remedies and all nutritional supplements they are taking.

Glutathione is best produced in our bodies by the feeding of a derivative of one of its precursors, namely, n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), together with lipoic acid and selenium. Glutathione, thus produced, has been used as one of the nutritional supplements in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Lou Gehrig's Disease and in the treatment of certain metal and chemical poisonings.

It is of interest to note that a derivative of the glutathione precursor, L-cysteine, is used, since high doses of L-cysteine are toxic. However the derivative, NAC is essentially non-toxic and itself has also been used as a nutritional supplement in the treatment of some viral infections and as an antioxidant in certain AIDS treatments. Lipoic acid is itself, a free radical scavenger and is both fat and water soluble (which is fairly rare). I will discuss selenium and its many uses, in detail, later in this series.

The glutathione in our bodies may also become depleted by the long term use of aspirin or other salicylate drugs and also during stress.

Glutathione is essentially non-toxic EXCEPT in persons with *true, insulin-dependent DIABETES* and in persons having CYSTINURIA, where there is a risk of forming cystine gallstones.

Now to the $64,000 (or is it now $6,400,000) question, how much of the three supplements, n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), lipoic acid and selenium, would I personally take per day?
If I wanted a brain-immune system boost, I would take:
n-acetyl-cysteine - 500mg on an empty stomach
Lipoic acid - 100mg with food
Selenium - 200ug (also called mcg) total for day including any and all supplements containing selenium.

If my body had a greater need for glutathione, such as in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, I would take 1gm of n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), 200mg lipoic acid and 200mcg of selenium. *However, I would NOT take higher doses than this*, without detailed consideration of my total nutrition and other herbs and/or drugs being taken.

Malic Acid

Malic acid may help some persons with fibromyalgia. The prsence of magnesium however, may be of consequence.

MINERAL PITCH, NEPALESE (Silajit or Shilajatu)

Napalese mineral pitch contains, aluminum, antimony, calcium, cobalt, copper, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, silicon, strontium, zinc, benzoic acid, tannic acid and varying amounts of other inorganic and organic compounds. Traditionally it is used as a tonic and may have some anti-inflammatory activity.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC)

NAC has antioxident activity. It appears to be helpful in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Preliminary data suggests that NAC may have some favorable impact on age-related memory loss.

Nucleic Acids/Nucleotides

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of genome fame and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) are marketed as nutritional supplements. DNA and RNA appear effective in some instances, in boosting the immune response and promoting tissue repair. However, claims that they are of use in Alzeheimer's disease, depression, skin disorders, fatigue, sexual dysfunction and aging are unsubstantiated.

Pectin and Pectin Fiber

Pectin and fiber pectin may have anti-thrombotic and cholesterol lowering ability.


Some rich sources of quercetin include onions, red wine, green tea and St . John's wort. Quercitin is a phenolic antioxidant and inhibits lipid peroxidation and also may have antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent research however, has not supported the claim that quercetin protects against heart attacks and strokes.


Resveratrol, which is found in red wine, mulberries, peanuts, bean sprouts and Japanese Knotweed, was found in 1999, by scientists at the University of Milan, to catalyze the enzyme Map-kinase to regenerate neural cells. This may be helpful in the treatment of Alzheimers and Parkinsons. In 2000, researchers found that Resveratrol could help in the treatment of the herpes simplex virus and by its ability to lower blood fats could be protective against some forms of heart disease. In 2002, Resveratrol was also found to have significant anti-inflammatory potential. Now in 2003, Harvard and other scientists have found that Resveratrol can increase the production of sirtuin connected enzymes, which prolong the life of yeasts (70%), fruit flies and worms. Animal studies will begin very shortly.

Royal Jelly

It may lower lipid levels in blood, including cholesterol and preliminary data shows a probable antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing response. However, has shown that it doesnot live up to expectations that it was an important anti-aging agent.


This is a flavonolglycoside, composed of quercetin and rutinose. It is found in many plants, particularly in buckwheat, black tea and apple peels. Rutin may be useful in certain cases of venous edema, since it may help strengthen capillary blood vessels and it also has anti-inflammatory activity.

S-Adenosyl-L-Methione (SAMe)

A direct metabolite of L-Methionine, it is a drug in Europe used for the treatment of depression, liver disorders, osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia. In the USA it is used as a dietary suppliment in osteoarithritis, but not in other types of arthritis (it is thought to act on the bones and joints) and also to increase the mood of well being in persons with feelings of depression. However, sufferers of bipolar disorders need to use SAMe only under medical supervision. SAMe should be taken with Vitamins B6 and B12 and folic acid, which help metabolize homocysteine (one of the by-products of using SAMe), which at high levels could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Soy Protein

In October 1999 the FDA approved its 11th health claim which states, "Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include 25 grams of soy protein a day, may reduce the risk of heart disease". Soy protein may have lipid lowering and antioxidant properties and may be of help in osteoporosis and atherosclerosis.


This is a blue-green algae or bacteria (phylum cyanobacteria). It is a rich source of protein and contains chlorophyll, carotenoids (Vitamin A family), minerals and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA - Omega -6). It is reputed to have antiviral, and antioxidant properties, also to protect the liver and lower blood cholesterol levels. All this needs to be proven by research.

Whey Proteins

These are one of the two main protein groups in cow's milk, the other being casein. The whey proteins may have antioxidant, antimicrobial and immunomodulating activity. Whey proteins are taken by some athletes and others as a protein supplement. However, "There is no creditable evidence that they build muscle faster than other protein sources" - PDR of Nutritional Supplements, page 529 (2001). WARNING: Whey proteins are contraindicated in persons hypersensitive to milk products. Home Page

NOTE: All information on this page is copyrighted by RosettaStoneInc, and may not be duplicated

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