The sinking of the Titanic continues to captivate people more than 100 years after the tragedy due to several factors. The ship’s discovery in 1985, the release of James Cameron’s blockbuster film in 1997, and the 100th anniversary of the sinking in 2012 have all contributed to a resurgence of interest in the Titanic. The story of the Titanic is often described as implausible and dramatic, involving the largest ship in the world, which was deemed unsinkable, and was carrying many rich and famous individuals. The ship’s slow descent into the ocean over the course of two hours and forty minutes allowed for a full development of the drama of human choices, making the disaster particularly compelling. The sinking of the Titanic occurred on April 15, 1912, in the Atlantic Ocean after hitting an iceberg1235.

Photograph by Brown Bros., New York

A full-scale replica of the Titanic, named “Titanic II,” has been under construction. It is being built by the company Blue Star Line in China and is intended to be a close replica of the original ship. The Titanic II is designed to have enough lifeboats for all passengers and crew, in compliance with modern safety regulations. The ship is expected to provide a unique experience for passengers while incorporating modern safety features to ensure a safe voyage5.

The Overturned Engelhardt Boat B

The Titanic wreckage remains located about 350 miles off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada, at a depth of roughly 12,500 to 13,000 feet below the ocean’s surface. The ship fell to the seabed in two parts, and the observed damage can offer clues about its condition. The site has been explored and studied by various expeditions, and the wreckage has been visited multiple times over the years. The Titanic’s resting place has become a UNESCO cultural heritage site, and efforts have been made to track and memorialize its location. The wreckage is gradually deteriorating, and its condition is expected to worsen over time. The site has been the focus of preservation and mapping projects to document and study the ship’s elemental form as it continues to deteriorate. The Titanic’s location and the ongoing interest in its preservation have contributed to its enduring significance more than a century after it sank.

The Titanic museums around the world offer unique features and exhibits that provide visitors with an in-depth look at the history and legacy of the iconic ship. Here are some of the unique features of each Titanic museum:

  1. Titanic Branson – Located in Branson, Missouri, USA. This museum offers authentic Titanic artifacts and unique stories of survivors of the wreck. It covers a broad scope of the ship’s history, including its construction, passengers, and the tragic sinking.
  2. SeaCity Museum – Located in Southampton, UK. The museum’s Titanic exhibition is home to one of the most poignant pieces of Titanic history. It offers an immersive experience where visitors can walk the decks, experience the ship’s opulent interior, and discover a full-sized replica of one of the lifeboats.
  3. Titanic: The Artifact Exhibition – Located in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. This exhibition features a wide range of artifacts recovered from the Titanic wreckage, including a deck chair. Visitors are given an identity of one of the 2,344 passengers on board and only discover at the end if they make it off the ship safely.
  4. Maritime Museum of the Atlantic – Located in Nova Scotia, Canada. The museum offers a unique, in-depth perspective on the Titanic’s history and features extensive Titanic exhibitions.
  5. Titanic Belfast – Located in Belfast, Northern Ireland. This museum is recognized as the premier Titanic museum in the world and is situated at the very site where the iconic RMS Titanic was built and launched. It offers nine interactive galleries that explore everything from Belfast’s shipbuilding industry to the ship’s tragic end.

These museums provide a range of experiences, from authentic artifacts and stories of survivors to immersive recreations of the ship’s interior, making them popular destinations for those interested in the history of the Titanic.

Titanic’s first-class reception room/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

Yacht Clubs model Titanic Opulance

When passengers booked passage on the Titanic, they looked forward to a variety of experiences, including culinary excellences. The Titanic was considered the epitome of luxury and opulence, and this was reflected in its dining options and food offerings6.

First-class passengers were treated to a lavish dining experience. The menu was extensive and included the latest French cuisine. The ship also had a la carte restaurants and a café open to all classes of passengers, offering a variety of dishes including sandwiches, pastries, and tea62. The ship’s chefs were experienced and well-trained, and the food was prepared using fresh ingredients6.

BUT WAIT, THERE’S MORE: 75,000 bottles of beer, 1,000 bottles of wine, 850 bottles of spirits and 8,000 cigars!

In addition to the regular dining options, first-class passengers could dine in Titanic’s Restaurant for an extra charge. This exclusive dining service and cuisine were on par with the finest European hotels like the Ritz or Hotel Cecil3.

Titanic First Class Dining Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain
As new money rose to prominence — the white collar working class — so did the concept of the restaurant. Old money was often welcome in these establishments, but families from new money had to book months in advance.
According to the RMS Titanic Hotel, before the turn of the 20th century, it was considered uncouth for rich families to eat in public.

Second-class passengers also had a good dining experience, with menu selections that rivalled most regional hotels2. Even third-class passengers, who had a more basic and less varied menu, enjoyed better accommodations and food than had been offered by other ships at the time16.

Cafe Parisien on the Titanic/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain
Remember Miss Brown (Kathy Bates) in James Cameron’s 1997 blockbuster hit? Being of new money, she would have needed to book months in advance to eat at First Class Dining.

There are a few restaurants in the USA that offer a Titanic-themed dining experience. One such restaurant is Cafe Jack, located in Southern California, which provides a unique Titanic-themed dining experience2. Another example is the Rayanne House in Belfast, which offers a recreation of the last menu rserved in the first-class restaurant on board the Titanic, providing a unique dining experience in a period dining room4. There are occasional special events or dinners hosted by Titanic groups or societies including yacht clubs in the USA that feature recreated Titanic menus, offering diners a chance to experience a taste of the luxury and opulence that defined dining on the historic ship1.

Illustration by Fortunino Matania, depicting boat deck as woman and children are encouraged to board lifeboats.

The first yacht clubs like the Royal Cork and the Royal Thames started out as dining clubs and the more prestigious clubs like those two, The York Yacht Club, the San Diego Yacht Club, The Saint Francis Yacht Club and the Seattle Yacht Club continue the fine dining tradition.

A powerful depiction of the disaster by the Italian artist, Fortunino Matania (1881-1963), showing the departure of the lifeboats in the moments prior to the ship’s breaking in two.

It is relatively common for yacht clubs to host Titanic-themed events, particularly around Halloween. These events often take the form of Titanic Masquerade parties and cruises, where attendees dress in period costumes and enjoy a night of entertainment and dining on board a yacht. Such events have been held in various locations, including San Diego, Seattle and Los Angeles, and they typically feature music, dancing, and other themed activities. While these events are not exclusive to yacht clubs, they do reflect a broader trend of Titanic-themed entertainment on the water.

First-class passengers on the Titanic enjoyed a truly luxurious dining experience. The first-class menu was extensive and included multiple courses, reflecting the opulence and grandeur associated with first-class travel at the time. Some of the dishes served to first-class passengers included:

  • Hors D’Oeuvres
  • Oysters
  • Consommé Olga
  • Cream of Barley
  • Poached Salmon with Mousseline Sauce
  • Filet Mignons Lili
  • Sauté of Chicken, Lyonnaise
  • Vegetable Marrow Farci
  • Lamb with Mint Sauce
  • Roast Duckling with Apple Sauce
  • Sirloin of Beef
  • Chateau Potatoes
  • Green Pea
  • Creamed Carrots
  • Boiled Rice Parmentier
  • Boiled New Potatoes
  • Punch Romaine

The first-class dining experience was a true reflection of luxury, with an emphasis on the finest and most indulgent culinary offerings123.

The following are some of the more well-known passengers in first class:

The richest passenger aboard was multi-millionaire John Jacob Astor. He was travelling with his second wife, Madeleine, who was five months pregnant. JJ Astor did not survive but his wife did.

Millionaire Benjamin Guggenheim was travelling on the Titanic with a lady friend. His wife and family were at home in New York. Guggenheim and his manservant helped women and children into lifeboats. When all the boats had gone they changed into their best clothes and prepared to “Die like gentlemen.”

Sir Cosmo and Lady Duff Gordon

Lady Duff Gordon was a notable dress designer whose clientele included Isadora Duncan, Oscar Wilde and the British royal family. The Duff Gordons both survived but were called to testify at the court of inquiry and explain why their boat contained only twelve people. During the inquiry they were accused and cleared of bribing crew members not to allow more people into the boat. The press referred to their boat (#1) as money boat.

The ‘Unsinkable’ Molly Brown

Molly was the daughter of a poor Irish immigrant family whose husband struck rich when mining for silver. She was travelling home to America aboard the Titanic. She survived the disaster in lifeboat number 6 and earned her nickname because she took control of the boat, kept the women rowing for seven hours and gave her furs to keep others warm.

Isador and Ida Straus

Isador Straus was a partner of Macey’s department store, New York. He and his wife were returning from da European holiday. Both died on the Titanic. Ida nearly got into lifeboat number 8 but refused saying to her husband “We have been living together for many years. Where you go, I go.”

First Class survivor Algernon Barkworth stepped into the water as Titanic took her final plunge. After some time in the water he reached the overturned Collapsible B and managed to pull himself on board despite concerns about the boat being swamped.

Perhaps one of the most colourful of Titanic’s survivors was Thomas Whitely. Having served as a saloon steward, Whitely would go on to serve in the RFC during the First World War and as an actor in Hollywood and elsewhere, appearing in the 1930 film adaptation of R.C. Sherriff’s play, Journey’s End. He died in 1943, while en route to Italy while serving with the RAF.

The Titanic’s menu was a reflection of the culinary tastes of the early 20th century, some of which might seem strange to modern diners. One such dish was “Chicken à la Maryland,” which was essentially fried chicken served with gravy and sometimes accompanied by corn fritters3. Another unusual dish was “potted shrimps,” a traditional British dish consisting of brown shrimp flavored with nutmeg and cayenne pepper, then cooked in clarified butter2.

The Promenade Deck of the Titanic

The first-class menu also included “Corned ox tongue,” a dish that involved curing an ox tongue with salt (corns of salt, hence the name ‘corned’), then boiling it and serving it cold, often with a variety of cheeses7. This dish might seem unusual to many today, given that offal and cured meats are less commonly consumed in many cultures now compared to the early 20th century.

It’s important to note that these dishes, while perhaps strange to some contemporary tastes, were considered delicacies during the Titanic’s time and reflect the culinary preferences of that era137.

Bedroom of Parlor Suite

The last meal served in the first-class restaurant on the Titanic (called the Ritz) was an extravagant and decadent affair. For first-class passengers, the final dinner included delicacies like oysters, salmon, filet mignon, sautéed chicken, rack of lamb with mint sauce, sirloin of beef, and roast duckling5. According to the book “The Last Dinner on the Titanic,” the menu consisted of no less than 10 courses for the VIPs3. The menu included:

  1. First Course: Hors D’Oeuvres
  2. Second Course: Consommé Olga, Cream of Barley
  3. Third Course: Poached Salmon with Mousseline Sauce, Cucumbers
  4. Fourth Course: Filet Mignons Lili, Sauté of Chicken, Lyonnaise, Vegetable Marrow Farci
  5. Fifth Course: Lamb, Mint Sauce, Roast Duckling, Apple Sauce, Sirloin of Beef, Chateau Potatoes, Green Pea, Creamed Carrots, Boiled Rice Parmentier & Boiled New Potatoes
  6. Sixth Course: Punch Romaine

Mousseline sauce is a luxurious and rich variation of the classic hollandaise sauce. It is made by creating a hollandaise base, which is an emulsion of egg yolks, lemon juice, and butter, and then folding in whipped cream to create a light and airy texture. The addition of whipped cream gives the sauce a smooth and velvety consistency, making it an elegant accompaniment to dishes such as fish, eggs, and vegetables. The sauce is known for its delicate and light texture, and it is often used to complement equally delicate textured foods. The process of making mousseline sauce involves carefully emulsifying the hollandaise base and then gently folding in the whipped cream to maintain the airy structure of the sauce.

In the plainly decorated Third Class dining room passengers ate at long tables, accommodating up to twenty-two people. The room was divided into two by a watertight bulkhead, with the forward portion restricted to families and single women, and the aft portion reserved for single men.

Consommé Olga was a first-class soup served on the Titanic’s final dinner. It was a clarified beef consommé, garnished with a few slices of scallops and finely diced vegetables such as celeriac, carrot, and cucumber. The consommé was then flavored with a splash of port. The dish was considered a glamorous and elegant part of the opulent 10-course meal served to the ship’s VIP passengers5.

Boilers of the Titanic arranged in Messrs.
Harland & Wolf’s Works

Lyonnaise, in the context of food, refers to a French culinary style associated with the city of Lyon. One of the well-known dishes in this style is “Lyonnaise Potatoes,” which are potatoes that are boiled and then sliced and shallow-fried, served together with fried onions. The term “à la lyonnaise” generally means that onions are a key part of the recipe. In the case of Lyonnaise Potatoes, the dish is sautéed and served with fried onions, creating a flavorful and comforting side dish. The dish is often made with ingredients such as potatoes, onions, and butter, and it is a popular accompaniment to a variety of main courses.

Punch Romaine was a rum-spiked shaved-ice palate cleanser served to first-class passengers during the last dinner aboard the Titanic on April 14th, 1912. It was based on a recipe from the famed French chef Georges Auguste Escoffier, who championed alcoholic shaved ices during the early twentieth century. The original recipe was essentially a granita and has been updated as a drinkable, citrusy cocktail poured over an iceberg of crushed ice. The ingredients typically include egg white, white rum, white wine, simple syrup, lemon juice, orange juice, and champagne or sparkling wine. It was a refreshing and elegant drink that formed part of the extravagant 10-course final meal served to the ship’s VIP passengers34.

The Titanic Museum is located in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee, and Branson, Missouri. The museum offers a variety of exhibits and experiences related to the Titanic, including a replica of the Grand Staircase, a first-class dining experience, and artifacts from the ship. The first-class dining experience at the museum is designed to replicate the opulence and grandeur of the original Titanic dining experience. The cost of dining at the museum varies depending on the specific package or event, and it is recommended to check the official website or contact the museum directly for the most up-to-date information on dining options and pricing.

While there is no explicit mention of vegetarian or vegan options in the menus of the Titanic, it is likely that some dishes could have been suitable for vegetarians. For instance, the first-class menu included vegetable marrow farci, a dish typically made with stuffed vegetables311. The third-class menu included vegetable soups and potatoes3. However, it’s important to note that the concept of vegetarianism and veganism as we understand it today was not as prevalent in the early 20th century, and the menus were not designed with these dietary preferences in mind.

In addition to the food, passengers also looked forward to the luxurious amenities and services offered on the ship. First-class passengers enjoyed amenities such as a gymnasium, a squash court, a saltwater swimming pool, electric and Turkish baths, and a barbershop3.

Saltwater was used in the pool to conserve freshwater

Most of the first-class bathroom facilities were shared. Communal lavatories with illuminated signage could be found along the passageways divided by gender3 Two B-Deck “Deluxe” Parlour Suites, or Promenade Suites, because they each contained a private promenade deck 50 feet (15 m) in length, were advertised.

Second-class passengers had their own library and access to a private smoking room3. They also had a kosher chef.

As with First and Second Class passengers, provision was made for Third Class passengers who wished to smoke – though their smoking room was far removed from the gentleman’s club atmosphere enjoy by the wealthier clientele. Again, the smoking room was for male passengers only.

Although the Third Class passengers enjoyed none of the luxuries offered to First and Second Class passengers, the White Star Line’s provision was noticeably better than that of its competitors.

An artist’s impression of a four-berth Third Class cabin. Located mostly on F Deck, with a few on the forward G Deck, these were the first cabins to flood because of their location in the lower portions of the bow. Many cabins aboard the Titanic had sinks.

Titanic Music

The band on the Titanic, led by Wallace Hartley, was a quintet and a trio, which covered various areas of the ship, including first and second class.

Dubbed ‘the most valuable Titanic artefact, Wallace Hartley’s violin and associated memorabilia fetched a record-breaking £1.1m when auctioned by Henry Aldridge and Son on 19 October 2013. The violin, which had been presented to the band leader by his fiancée, was recovered with Hartley’s body by the crew of the Mackay-Bennett.
(Henry Aldridge & Son Ltd)

The band was known to play a variety of music, including classical pieces, waltzes, overtures, and popular music of the time. Some of the pieces played by the ship’s orchestra aboard the Titanic included:

  • Il Barbiere di Siviglia – Rossini
  • Zampa – Herold
  • Semiramide – Rossini
  • La Gazza ladra – Rossini
  • Muta di Portici – Auber
  • Italiana in Algeri – Rossini
  • Tancredi – Rossini
  • Guglielmo Tell – Rossini
  • Morning, Noon and Night in Vienna – Suppè
  • Pique Dame – Suppè
  • Poet and Peasant – Suppè
  • Raymond – A. Thomas
  • Martha – Flotow
  • Angel’s Serenade – Braga
  • Anvil Chorus from Il Trovatore – Verdi
  • Apple Blossoms – Roberts
  • Amaryllis – Ghys
  • Cavalieria Rusticana, Intermezzo – Mascagni
  • Entre Act Gavotte from Mignon – Thomas
  • Fifth Hungarian Dance – Brahms
  • First Heart Throbs – Eilenberg
  • Flower Song – Lange
  • La Morsaria – Morse
  • La Paloma. – Yradier
  • Loin Du Bal – Gillett
  • Love’s Dream

These pieces provide a glimpse into the musical repertoire that would have been played by the ship’s orchestra during the Titanic’s fateful voyage. The band’s story, including their dedication to playing music to calm passengers as the ship sank, has become legendary and is an enduring part of the Titanic’s history.

The Canvas Collapsible

The Titanic film, directed by James Cameron, features a notable soundtrack with several hit songs. Some of the well-known songs from the film include:

The Last Photograph of the Titanic’s Commander and Three Officers
  1. “My Heart Will Go On” – Performed by Céline Dion
  2. “Take Her to Sea, Mr. Murdoch” – Composed by James Horner
  3. “Southampton” – Composed by James Horner
  4. “The Portrait” – Composed by James Horner
  5. “Unable to Stay, Unwilling to Leave” – Composed by James Horner
  6. “Hymn to the Sea” – Composed by James Horner
Captain Rostron of the S.S. Carpathia

These songs, particularly “My Heart Will Go On,” which was performed by Céline Dion, became iconic and are strongly associated with the film. The soundtrack, composed by James Horner, contributed significantly to the emotional impact of the movie and remains popular among audiences.

Figure 1. Cabin locations and access to lifeboats based on class. Woolley, Joe. “Class segregation on board RMS Titanic.” Digital Image. Encyclopedia Titanica.

Titanic Morbidity

Carpathia carried thirteen of Titanic’s lifeboats to New York, setting the others adrift; Collapsible ‘A’ was later recovered by Oceanic and also taken to New York. None of the lifeboats is known to have survived, though various fixtures and fittings, stripped by souvenir-hunters, are displayed in museums around the world.
54 i

The “women and children first” protocol, also known as the Birkenhead drill, is a traditional code of conduct whereby the lives of women and children are to be saved first in a life-threatening situation at sea, typically when survival resources such as lifeboats are limited. However, it is important to note that there is no legal basis for this protocol in international maritime law. The concept was celebrated among Victorian and Edwardian commentators as a chivalric ideal, but it has no basis in maritime law1.

In the Boy Scouts of America’s Sea Scouting program, “Women and children first” is considered “the motto of the sea” and is part of the Sea Promise1.

Research has shown that in actual maritime disasters, there have been wide disparities between the survival rates of men and women. For example, in the sinking of the MS Estonia in 1994, only 5.4 percent of the women onboard survived, compared to 22 percent of the men. The research noted that men, thanks to their physical strength, have better chances of surviving than women, barring self-sacrifice5.

Therefore, while the “women and children first” protocol has been a longstanding cultural ideal, its application in actual maritime disasters has been inconsistent, and there is no legal basis for it in international maritime law.

As mentioned, Titanic themed events sometimes involve attendees playing the survivors. Around Halloween victims may be featured.

One of the misunderstandings about the Titanic’s sinking is that only women and children were allowed into lifeboats. Any men who survived, it has been wrongly assumed, either swam to a boat or entered one from the ship without permission. This was maintained at the time by some survivors, including First Class passenger Renée Harris, in their newspaper and magazine interviews. But it was untrue, gaining currency to the point that many people believe the myth today. 

For the most part, female survivors who claimed male passengers weren’t permitted in lifeboats were those who escaped in port side boats. There, Capt. Smith’s order of “Women and children first” had indeed been garbled by Second Officer Lightoller into “Women and children only.”

Titanic’s Aft Lifeboats

The Titanic had a total of 885 crew members. Out of these, 214 crew members survived, which is approximately 24% of the crew.

The Titanic had a total of 324 first-class passengers when it sank. Out of these, 202 first-class passengers survived, comprising 57 men, 140 women, and 5 children. This means that approximately 62.3% of the first-class passengers survived the sinking.

For the other classes, out of 285 second-class passengers, approximately 41% survived, and out of 709 third-class passengers, approximately 25% survived12345.

Titanic at dock/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain
According to The Spruce Eats, the Titanic held thousands of pounds of meat, vegetables, fruit, and flour, as well as thousands of bottles of alcohol and 14,000 gallons of fresh water.

The RMS Titanic was a British luxury passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on April 15, 1912, during its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. It was carrying an estimated 2,224 passengers and crew, of which more than 1,500 died, making it the deadliest peacetime sinking of an ocean liner. The ship’s sinking led to major changes in maritime safety regulations and inspired numerous artistic works. The wreckage of the Titanic was not discovered until 1985 by an American oceanographer named Robert Ballard. The ship’s tragic history has continued to captivate generations and has been the subject of numerous books, articles, and films12345.For more detailed information, you can visit the following links:

  1. R.M.S Titanic – History and Significance
  2. Titanic | History, Sinking, Rescue, Survivors, Movies, & Facts
  3. Titanic’s dark history has captivated generations | CNN
  4. The Westport Library Resource Guides: The Titanic: Home
  5. Titanic – Wikipedia

The Titanic’s last distress, sent in Intercontinental Morse Code, was:


“CQD” was the common international distress signal in use at the time; “SOS” was a newer distress signal. “DE” is the international code meaning “from”, adopted from the French preposition of the same meaning. “MGY” was the Titanic’s call signal. The signal was keyed by John G. Phillips, the Titanic’s chief Marconi operator, using a spark transmitter. For general information on this aspect of the Titanic debacle, see Wireless communications and the Titanic disaster By David Barlow. For technical details of the Titanic’s wireless installation, see The wireless installation of R.M.S. Titanic by Douglas A. Kerr


The architects of the Titanic were from the shipbuilding company Harland & Wolff, and the design of the Titanic was directed by William Pirrie, a director of Harland & Wolff and White Star Line. The architects believed that the Titanic’s design, which included a double bottom (but not double sides) and 15 watertight bulkheads that extended higher than the required waterline, justified advertising the ship as “practically unsinkable.” These features were intended to enhance the ship’s safety and stability, making it one of the most advanced and secure vessels of its time.

However, the ship’s tragic sinking following a collision with an iceberg on its maiden voyage in 1912 led to significant scrutiny and subsequent changes in maritime safety regulations. The architects were not held personally accountable for the Titanic sinking, as the investigations that followed focused on the ship’s design and safety regulations rather than individual culpability12.

In the USA, boats under 20 feet are required to have basic flotation to keep the boat afloat and upright in the event of a swamping. This regulation mandates upright, level flotation, but it does not necessarily require the boat to be “unsinkable” in the traditional sense.

Boat No. 1 was one of two small “emergency” wooden cutters that were located one on each side of the Titanic; No. 1 was on the starboard side (bottom right) where men were allowed to board after women and children. Only 12 passengers were loaded. Boat No. 1 did not clear the side of Titanic owing to a protuberance called a spar, at about the B-Deck level that caught on the boat’s gunwales, arresting the lowering process. It was not until the crew used a wire cutter to chop the obstacle away to reach the sea.

The Titanic was equipped with two emergency cutters, numbered No. 1 and No. 2, each measuring 25 feet 2 inches long, 7 feet 2 inches wide, and 3 feet deep. The cutters were situated immediately aft of the bridge, one to port and the other to starboard. While Titanic was at sea, they were slung outboard so that they could be launched quickly in the event of an emergency, such as a man overboard. The cutters were smaller than the standard lifeboats, with a capacity of 40 people each. They were designed for maximum seaworthiness, with a double-ended design effectively having two bows, which reduced the risk that they would be flooded by a following sea.

The emergency cutters were equipped with a mast and sails, and their equipment was similar to that of the standard lifeboats, but they had no mast or sail, had eight oars apiece, and were steered using a steering oar rather than a rudder. The cutters were swung out at all times when the ship was underway, uncovered and with all their equipment, including a lighted oil lantern placed in the boat every evening. Therefore, the intended use for the cutters was to serve as emergency boats that could be quickly launched in the event of an incident requiring a boat, such as a man overboard. The cutters were designed to be smaller and more maneuverable than the standard lifeboats, allowing for a speedy descent when required.

Boston Whaler is known for producing unsinkable boats. The company’s boats are built with a Unibond construction, which involves two precisely engineered molded hull pieces fitted together and filled with foam. This design makes the boats unsinkable, even when fully swamped or under the worst, repeated abuse. The unsinkable feature is a key selling point for Boston Whaler, and the company has built a reputation for producing boats with exceptional safety and reliability. All Boston Whaler boats are advertised as unsinkable, thanks to their Unibond construction, which provides smart design, high-quality construction, and forward-thinking technology, making them a popular choice for boaters seeking peace of mind on the water.

Boston Whaler’s unsinkable reputation is rooted in its innovative and revolutionary design. The company’s founder, Richard “Dick” Fisher, created the “Unsinkable Legend” with a daring launch in 1961, when he sawed a Boston Whaler boat in half and drove away in the remaining portion. This demonstration showcased the boat’s unsinkable nature, which was made possible by a cutting-edge foam-and-fiberglass construction process. The boats are built with a Unibond construction, involving two precisely engineered molded hull pieces fitted together and filled with foam, making them unsinkable even when fully swamped or under the worst, repeated abuse. This design feature has been a key selling point for Boston Whaler, and the company has built a reputation for producing boats with exceptional safety and reliability. The unsinkable nature of Boston Whaler boats has been put to the test in real-life situations and has consistently proven itself to be one of the safest boats on the water, contributing to its legendary status in maritime history. The company doesn’t make sailboats.

ETAP sailboats are advertised as unsinkable. ETAP Yachting, the builder of ETAP sailboats, is known for its double-skinned construction and foam-filled interiors, which provide the boats with unsinkable properties. This design feature has been a key selling point for ETAP sailboats, and the company has built a reputation for producing unsinkable vessels, particularly in the smaller size ranges.

The Macgregor 26 sailboats are often advertised as unsinkable due to its built-in foam compartments, which provide flotation and allow the boat to float. This feature is highlighted as a safety benefit, particularly for those concerned about the boat’s stability and the reassurance it provides, especially for children. However, it’s important to note that the unsinkable claim is based on the presence of built-in foam compartments rather than the same double-skinned construction and foam-filled interiors found in ETAP sailboats.

The Macgregor 26’s unsinkable feature is often cited as a unique selling point and a source of reassurance for potential owners. Rather than double-skinned construction the Macgregor 26s use a double hull. The boats have tanks used for water ballast that are essentially a second hull.

The Titanic was equipped with a total of 20 lifeboats, which can be split into three different types:

  1. Wooden Lifeboats: There were 14 standard wooden lifeboats, each measuring 30 feet long, 9 feet 1 inch wide, and 4 feet deep. These boats had a capacity of 65 persons each and were designed by Harland and Wolff Chief Draughtsman Roderick Robert Crispin Chisholm124.
  2. Engelhardt Collapsible Lifeboats: There were four Engelhardt collapsible lifeboats, each measuring 27 feet 5 inches long, 8 feet wide, and 3 feet deep, with a capacity of 47 persons each. These had collapsible canvas sides and could be stowed almost flat against a wall or bulkhead, taking up a relatively small amount of deck space124.
  3. Wooden Cutters: Additionally, there were two wooden cutters, each with a capacity of 40 persons3. During the evacuation, the efforts primarily focused on the standard lifeboats and the collapsible lifeboats. Therefore, the emergency cutters were not deployed for the purpose for which they were intended during the Titanic’s sinking12345.

The wooden lifeboats were clinker-built and the collapsible lifeboats had collapsible canvas sides. The wooden lifeboats were designed to carry 65 people each, and the collapsible lifeboats were designed to carry 47 people each. The total lifeboat capacity was 11,327.9 cubic feet, theoretically capable of taking 1,178 people4.

As for the sinkability of the lifeboats, the standard wooden lifeboats and the Engelhardt collapsible lifeboats were designed to be unsinkable. The wooden lifeboats were constructed with airtight buoyancy tanks incorporated into the boats’ hulls, and the collapsible lifeboats had collapsible canvas sides, which would have provided additional buoyancy in the event of swamping. Therefore, under normal circumstances, these lifeboats (like Boston Whalers, ETAPS, and Macgregor 26s of today) were not sinkable.

The standard wooden lifeboats, the collapsible lifeboats and the cutters were each equipped with eight oars for rowing and one for steering. The oars were likely around 12 to 14 feet in length, which was a common size for the oars used in the lifeboats of that era.

Masts and sails were stored in the bottom of all lifeboats and the two cutters.

4 thoughts on “Titanic

  1. The Titanic wasn’t capable of setting speed records. This ship was


    The fastest ocean liner to ever cross the Atlantic – in both directions – has been languishing at a pier in south Philadelphia for more than twenty-five years. However, the days of the rusting SS United States calling at Pier 82 in the City of Brotherly Love are likely numbered. The 990 ft. ship that’s bigger than the Titanic is facing eviction.

    On her maiden voyage in 1952, the SS United States won the coveted Blue Riband from Great Britain. What came to be called “America’s Flagship” crossed the Atlantic in 3 days, 10 hours, and 40 minutes – besting the time set by the RMS Queen Mary by 10 hours. To this day, the SS United States holds the record.


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