Competing on Comanche Time

In 1994, at the age of 49, Jim Clark, owing to a company called Silicon Graphics, was one of the legends of the high-tech world. 20 years later, he became a legend in sailing (see Sailing World  28 October 2014.) Today we view him as a model of the American Dream.

American Dream

During the colonization period, the American Dream was rooted in the pursuit of religious freedom and the belief that hard work and ambition would lead to prosperity and spiritual peace. The Puritans, who fled religious persecution in England, believed that success on earth would eventually lead to eternal life in heaven.

After World War 2, the American Dream evolved to include single-family home and car ownership, driven by the G.I. Bill of Rights, which enabled returning veterans to get an education and purchase homes in suburban area.

Lifetime employment has been a part of the American Dream for many working Americans. The traditional American Dream included the promise of job security with decent wages, health care, and benefits, as well as the opportunity for training, education, and advancement. It also encompassed the ability to own a home, raise a family, and eventually retire after a fulfilling career1. Work is considered essential to the American Dream, providing individuals with the opportunity, responsibility, and community they need to flourish3. However, the concept of the American Dream has evolved over time, and for some, self-employment has become a new interpretation of the American Dream4. The American Dream can mean different things to different people, and the traditional notion of lifetime employment may not be as prevalent today due to changing economic and employment landscapes5.

ON NOVEMBER 10, 1961, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. spoke from the stage at the north end of the Eagles Auditorium in Seattle. “The nation and the world stand on the threshold of a new age,” Dr. King said on that occasion, “the age when men of all races will go hand in hand.”

The US government has attempted to incorporate indigenous, Mexican, and Black cultures into the American Dream by promoting the idea that hard work and ambition can lead to success for everyone, regardless of their background.

For example, Barack Obama and Taylor Swift have both achieved success in their respective fields, embodying the American Dream in different ways. Obama, as the first Black president of the United States, represents the breaking of racial barriers and the potential for anyone to achieve success through hard work and determination. Taylor Swift, as a successful singer-songwriter, represents the pursuit of personal dreams and the power of individual talent.

Barack Obama’s embodiment of the American Dream is deeply rooted in his personal journey from humble beginnings to becoming the first Black president of the United States. His story is a testament to the idea that anyone can rise and succeed in the U.S., regardless of their background. Obama’s vision of the American Dream emphasizes the role of government in creating opportunities for everyone and fostering a cooperative effort towards success. This vision is a departure from the traditional American Dream, which often emphasizes individual effort and personal wealth.

Taylor Swift, on the other hand, represents the American Dream through her success as a singer-songwriter. Her journey from a small-town girl to a global pop star embodies the pursuit of personal dreams and the power of individual talent. Swift’s music often paints a vivid picture of life in small-town America, resonating with many listeners and encouraging them to dream about their own futures. However, her version of the American Dream also includes elements of fame and wealth, which are not necessarily part of the traditional American Dream3 8.

In her commencement speech at New York University (NYU), Taylor Swift did not explicitly discuss her interpretation of the American Dream. However, she shared valuable life lessons and insights that can be related to the concept of the American Dream. Swift emphasized the importance of embracing mistakes, following one’s intuition, and acknowledging the support of loved ones She also encouraged the graduates to be enthusiastic and try hard when it comes to the things they love. These ideas can be seen as reflecting the American Dream’s core values of hard work, perseverance, and the pursuit of personal dreams. In conclusion, both Obama and Swift’s versions of the American Dream reflect the evolving nature of this concept, incorporating elements of personal success, hard work, and opportunity, but also highlighting the importance of community, cooperation, and individual talent. And the American Dream evolves over time.

Today some argue that the European lifestyle, with government-provided healthcare and education, better reflects the modern American Dream for those under 40 than the traditional American Dream held by older residents of the USA. The European Dream emphasizes sustainable development, quality of life, a fair work environment and interdependence, while the over 40 American Dream focuses on economic growth, personal wealth, and independence. Nonetheless, the reality of the American Dream has not been as inclusive as the ideal, with many minority groups still facing significant barriers to achieving success.

Protestant Ethic

The Protestant Ethic also known as the Calvinist work ethic or the Puritan work ethic, is a concept in sociology, economics, and historiography that values hard work, thrift, and efficiency in one’s worldly calling. It is associated with the belief that worldly success could be interpreted as a sign of eternal salvation, and thus was vigorously pursued. This ethic is often linked to the economic success of Protestant groups in the early stages of European capitalism

The American Dream, on the other hand, is the belief that through hard work, courage, and determination, one can achieve prosperity and upward mobility. It is a foundational principle of American life and culture, emphasizing the potential for individuals to secure a better life for themselves and their children through hard work and adherence to societal rules3 10.

Prosperity Gospel

The prosperity gospel relates to the American Dream by promoting the idea that believers may achieve both divine salvation and worldly success.

This belief system is not associated with specific Christian denominations, but rather with certain charismatic and Pentecostal leaders and movements. Some of the prominent figures associated with the prosperity gospel movement include Joel Osteen, Creflo Dollar, Kenneth Copeland, T.D. Jakes, and Joyce Meyer, among others24. These leaders and their ministries have been influential in promoting the prosperity gospel, which emphasizes believers’ abilities to transcend poverty and/or illness through devotion and positive confession, and affirms the religious and spiritual legitimacy of wealth accumulation4.

It teaches that faith, positive thoughts, positive declarations, and donations to the church can draw health, wealth, and happiness into believers’ lives. Adherents of the prosperity gospel believe that God wants believers to be richly blessed in this life and that physical well-being and material riches are always God’s will for the faithful. This teaching fuses salvation with material goods, and as believers pursue spiritual rewards, they are also, perhaps paradoxically, striving for the American Dream. The prosperity gospel, therefore, aligns with the American Dream’s emphasis on the possibility of upward social mobility and success through hard work, determination, and initiative.

Legality and Morality

As for the assumption of legality and morality in both concepts, the Protestant Ethic, in its original religious context, would certainly assume that those chosen to go to heaven and identified by their wealth would behave morally and legally. This is because the Protestant Ethic values self-discipline, the stewardship of possessions, and the avoidance of sinful activities12

The American Dream, on the other hand, does not explicitly assume that the work done to rise to the top is done legally. However, it is generally understood that the American Dream involves playing by the rules of society, which would include adhering to laws. Furthermore, laws in the workplace are seen as part of the American Dream, protecting against bias and discrimination and allowing people of all races and genders to achieve economic progress3 11.

Netscape vs Microsoft

In 1994 Clark was tied to a company called Netscape. Netscape’s vision was the creation of the company’s two founders, Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen. The two formed an odd couple, even by the standards of Silicon Valley. This binding required competing with Bill Gates.

Bill Gates’ wealth accumulation through Microsoft has been a subject of controversy, with some attributing it to predatory monopolistic practices rather than honest work. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and several economists have scrutinized Microsoft’s business practices, particularly during the 1990s and early 2000. The DOJ’s case against Microsoft, United States v. Microsoft Corp., focused on the company’s alleged predatory strategies and barriers to market entry1. The government argued that Microsoft abused its market power through a pattern of predatory and exclusionary practices2. The company was accused of trying to create a monopoly that led to the collapse of Clark’s rival Netscape by giving its browser software for free3. The judge ruled that Microsoft violated parts of the Sherman Antitrust Act and ordered the company to break up into two entities3.

The browser war pitted Microsoft’s Internet Explorer against the Netscape Navigator browser in a contest over who would own the technology that ran the Web: Microsoft or Netscape. The outcome frustrated the ambitions of both.
Microsoft’s Internet Explorer demolished Netscape Navigator in the market, but did it with tactics that brought an anti-trust suit against Microsoft. The lawsuit did not slow Internet Explorer’s rise or save Netscape, but it did curb Microsoft’s drive toward a “Windows Web.” Since then, competing browsers like Firefox, Chrome, and Safari have emerged, all of them – Internet Explorer included – using open, commonly shared technologies. MOHAI.

An article in The Economist titled “Microsoft in the dock” discussed the government’s case against Microsoft, suggesting that the company may have abused its monopoly power2. Another article in The Economist, “Now bust Microsoft’s trust,” portrayed Microsoft as a relentless and predatory monopolist, using its market power and immense profits to stifle innovation, such as Clark’s and harm both consumers and any companies that dared to compete with it4

However, it’s important to note that while Microsoft was accused of predatory monopolistic practices, and lost the antitrust case, the company and Gates himself have consistently denied these allegations. Gates has stated that “Microsoft follows the rules. Microsoft is subject to the rules”1. Furthermore, some economists have argued that antitrust laws hurt consumers as well as the success of domestic firms in global competition3.

In conclusion, while there are allegations that Bill Gates’ wealth accumulation was more related to predatory monopolistic practices than honest work, it’s a complex issue with differing viewpoints. Gates and Microsoft have consistently denied these allegations, and some economists have argued against the use of antitrust laws in such cases.

The American Dream emphasizes the potential for individuals to achieve success and reach high levels of wealth through hard work and perhaps luck. Exercising monopoly power, as Bill Gates did, is directly opposed to individual achievement, which is the biggest part of the American Dream. Gates was James Clark’s greatest adversary.

James H. Clark

James H. Clark, an entrepreneur and computer scientist, is a model of the American Dream due to his significant achievements in the tech industry. Stanford University played a crucial role in Clark’s success. He served as an associate professor of electrical engineering at Stanford after getting his GED, B.S., and Ph.D.

Prior to Stanford, Clark was in the US Navy, where he was introduced to electronics. This experience was the stepping stone. A high school dropout who joined the navy at 17, Clark was teaching computer science at Stanford by 1979. Three years later, he started a company specializing in advanced computer graphics.

Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI) went on to make the high-powered workstations that created the special effects for Jurassic park.

By 1994, it was well on its way to more than $2 billion in annual sales. In 1994, at the age of 49, Clark was one of the legends of the high-tech world. Clark, however, had become frustrated with Silicon Graphic’s reluctance to pursue the high-volume, low-end consumer market. In February 1994, he stepped down as chairman, walking away from millions of dollars of stock options with the idea of starting again.

Clark had a nimble mind and a willingness to take risks. At the time, he was particularly intrigued by interactive television and consumer electronics. His interest was also piqued by Mosaic, the first widely used browser for the World Wide Web. Out of curiosity, Clark sent an e-mail to Marc Andreessen, one of Mosaic’s developers, and soon a partnership was born.

In conclusion, Gates’ background and the allegations against Microsoft with his entrepreneurial success and philanthropic endeavors align with the fundamental principles of the Prosperity Gospel better than the American Dream.

The two began by hashing out a number of concepts related to Clark’s original interest, interactive TV…. Once it had become clear that a full-scale rollout of interactive TV was nowhere in sight, the pair took up other ideas, including an online game service for Nintendo. Finally, Andreessen came up with the winning plan–create a “Mosaic-killing” browser or “Mozzilla” for short

Once Andreessen had laid out his ideas about the future of the internet and global computing, Clark was hooked. Andressen would bring the technology, and Clark would bring the money (eventually more than $4 million of his own funds) as well as the maturity, experience, and world-class contacts.

The above is from page 20 and 21 of Competing on Internet Time by Michael A. Cusumano and David B. Yoffie


Acording to the builder “The carbon-fibre built Comanche marks a step in advanced build technology for Hodgdon Yachts, the oldest builder in America. Hodgdon’s European Sales & Marketing Director Cyril Le Sourd, appointed to head the company’s recently opened office in Monaco, notes the builder’s ability to blend traditional and modern boatbuilding as its strength. ‘One shed we can have this aerospace technology build and in the next we might have a classic,’ he says.

Comanche has been launched after an extremely compressed build schedule, built for experienced owner Jim Clark, who has famously owned the 90-metre Royal Huisman iconic superyacht Athena, which is currentlyfor sale

The yacht’s carbon fibre hull sports a fierce red-and-black paint job that should look sharp as she flies across the water at her expected high speeds.” And while Clark may be too old to be on board for some of the more competitive races, his 35-year-old wife seems more than ready, starting on December 26 in Sydney.’My wife’s an Australian and a very competitive lady and she wants to sail in Sydney-Hobart,’ said Clark.’I say “we have the boat, do as you wish.” I’ll let her run the show.’

One war horse that did manage to gain himself a bit of fame was Comanche, who served in the Great Sioux War of 1876. After his death, this decorated hero was stuffed and you can actually still see his body today at the University of Kansas Natural History Museum in Lawrence, KS.

I have not found a documented reason for naming the race boat Comanche. But it is an important naming.

The Comanche people do not represent the American Dream in the traditional sense. Their historical and cultural significance lies in their nomadic horse culture, fierce warrior traditions, and their adaptation to the challenges brought by European colonization.

The Comanche had a strong belief in the personal power of individuals rather than spirits, and their religion was animistic, involving a belief in a creator spirit and its counterpart, an evil spirit, and accepting the Sun, the Earth, and the Moon as deities. Their traditional religion was a personal matter, not an organized one.

They thought they had originated from animals, perhaps wolves. There was no special class of religious leaders and the Comanche had few ceremonies, with emphasis being laid on the male vision quest.

The Comanche were a powerful Native American tribe that ruled the Great Plains of North America for over a century. There are around 17,000 enrolled Comanche members today. To be officially recognized as Comanche, one must have at least 1/4 Comanche blood quantum3.

The key benefits of being Comanche were their military prowess, mastery of horsemanship, and ability to adapt Spanish technologies and tactics to resist colonial powers12. This allowed the Comanche to build a vast empire and dominate the region for generations.

However, the Comanche faced significant disadvantages as well. The loss of their land and resources through treaties and encroachment by settlers led to famine, disease, and the near-destruction of their way of life345. Today, many Comanche still struggle with high rates of poverty, unemployment, and social issues on the former reservation lands in Oklahoma3.

Most Comanche people, around 4,000, still live in southwestern Oklahoma near the old reservation lands3. Others have moved to urban areas, but the Comanche have maintained their cultural identity and traditions despite the challenges they have faced over the centuries.

Today, the Comanche people continue to preserve and celebrate their cultural heritage, including traditional religious practices, while also engaging in economic development and modern activities, such as operating casinos and cultural events. Many participate in Christian organized religions.

The Comanche people’s representation of the American Dream is more closely tied to their cultural resilience and their ability to maintain their traditions in the face of adversity, rather than a pursuit of material wealth or success. James Clark honors that spirit with his racing yacht named after them.

The yacht Comanche has participated in the Sydney Hobart Yacht Race and achieved notable success. To win the Sydney Hobart Yacht Race, a combination of tactical skill, strategic decision-making, and favorable weather conditions is essential.

The race covers a distance of 628 nautical miles from Sydney to Hobart, and winning the tactical battle plays a significant role in securing victory25. The final approach to Hobart, up the Derwent River, can be crucial, as winds can be fickle, and a lead can be lost in the final miles5. The Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race has a rich history, having been held annually since 1945. It was first organized when a group of Sydney yachtsmen planned a post-World War II cruise to Hobart, and the race has since become a platform for human achievement and endeavor.

Comanche, built by James Clark, has been skippered by various individuals during the Sydney Hobart races, including John Winning Jr in 20225 and Ken Read in 20144. In 2017, under a different skipper, Comanche set the race record with a time of one day, nine hours, 15 minutes, and 24 seconds3.

In 2022, Comanche, skippered by John Winning Jr, took line honours in the race, marking its fourth line honours victory in the past seven races5. This vessel is James Clark’s Legacy.

Before analyzing Clark as a role model for the American Dream first the USA population is analyzed.

Generational Breakdown

Generational differences are a significant factor in analyzing the American Dream. The generations currently active in the USA include:

  • Silent Generation: Born between 1928 and 1945, this generation is characterized by their experiences of the Great Depression and World War II, which have shaped their values around hard work, financial prudence, and respect for institutions. This generation leans more towards the Republican Party, with 52% identifying or leaning Republican compared to 43% identifying or leaning Democratic1. In 2022, this generation accounted for 5.49% of the population1. They are likely to hold that the American Dream is religious freedom and is tied to the Protestant Ethic where one’s wealth stewardship on earth demonstrates who goes to heaven.
  • Baby Boomers: Born between 1946 and 1964, they grew up during a time of economic prosperity and are often associated with a strong work ethic, competitiveness, and a traditional view of the American Dream, which includes home ownership and upward mobility2 but may not involve organized religion. Baby Boomers are more evenly divided in their political affiliations, with roughly equal shares identifying with or leaning towards both parties2. In 2022, this generation accounted for 20.58% of the population1. This generation has the most children in college.
  • Generation X: Born between 1965 and 1980, this generation has faced economic challenges that have altered their perception of the American Dream. They are more skeptical of institutions and value work-life balances and individualism6. Generation X has become more conservative and Republican over the last 10 years2. In 2022, this generation accounted for 19.61% of the population1.
  • Millennials: Born between 1981 and 1996, they have been shaped by the digital revolution and economic uncertainty. They tend to value experiences over possessions and are more liberal on social issues5. Millennials have the highest proportion of independents of any generation, but when their partisan leanings are taken into account, they are the most Democratic generation2. In 2022, this generation accounted for 21.67% of the population1. Among voters, the population of Millennials is currently the largest. despite being the largest generation in the electorate, Millennials have not been the largest generational bloc of actual voters.
  • Generation Z: Born after 1996, they are the most racially and ethnically diverse generation and are digital natives. They have shown high levels of political engagement and are more progressive on issues like climate change and social justice13. Generation Z voters are much more liberal and are expected to be a source of electoral strength for Democrats for some years to come3. However, recent polling by Harvard suggests that independent and Republican generation Z voters have tuned out, deciding to avoid becoming informed as a stress coping mechanism.

The American Dream traditionally means achieving greater prosperity than the previous generation. However, this concept has evolved, and younger generations, especially Millennials, place more importance on pursuing their passions like Taylor Swift and are less focused on material milestones2 and wealth accumulation.

Partial view of Express Liner “Kaiser Wilhelm I” showing a cross section of the first class dining lounge and coal bunkers in the lower part of the vessel. During the journey, about 5,000 tons of coal stored in these bunkers had to be carried by hand to the 19 boilers and then fired, about 240 haulers and stokers performed this exhausting work. Directly above lies the first class dining lounge; it is 4 decks high and seats 554 persons. 170 stewards and 60 cooks, bakers and pastrycooks catered for the passengers on board, which numbered about 2,500.

Regarding climate issues, younger generations, including Generation Z and Millennials, are more likely than older ones to support phasing out the use of oil, coal, and natural gas entirely3. This suggests that older generations may be less concerned about climate issues compared to their younger counterparts.

3,000 Feet of Ice Pen and ink with digital color Ray Troll, 2018
16,000 years ago, the Seattle area was buried beneath a thick ice sheet. When the climate warmed at the end of the last ice age, the glacier melted and left behind deep gouges and mounds of dirt-forming the landscape of hills, lakes and Puget Sound you see today. We know how high the glacier stretched based on the location of glacial deposits on nearby mountains.

Younger generations are also looking for changes in various aspects of life that align more closely with European standards. For example, they are generally more supportive of universal healthcare, affordable education, stricter gun control measures, and a more progressive tax system457. These preferences reflect a desire for a social safety net and policies that promote equality and sustainability, which are more prevalent in European countries.

In summary, generational differences in the definition of the American Dream are shaped by younger generations showing a greater concern for progressive issues, including climate change, and a desire for policies that resemble those found in Europe.

Master/Slave Economy vs Democracy Fair Economy

Thom Hartmann, radio and television commentator, businessman, and prolific author to trot out one of his recent titles, The Hidden History of American Oligarchy, where he has argued that the South had ceased to be a democracy by the 1830s primarily due to the invention of the cotton gin and mass production by Eli Whitney. Moreover, at the time the Civil War broke out the South was already “a full-blown police state run by a few thousand morbidly rich families who lived and acted like the feudal lords of ancient Europe.” And when the pro-slavery South seceded from the anti-slavery Union and the Civil War began it was because the former wanted a nation comprised only of slave owning states.

As Hartmann wrote in a Raw Story commentary on January 2, 2024: “The simple reality is that the pro-slavery South is still very much with us, and is still—after 163 years—trying to make the case that democracy should be replaced with a strongman white supremacist oligarchy.”

American oligarchy: The fight for democracy is just the first step

The American Dream as described above is heavily influenced by oligarchy even if the American government itself isn’t completely controlled by them. For example, about one-third of the homes purchased in the nation in 2022 were purchased by oligarchs. Hence many holding home ownership as their American dream were denied. According to Bernie Sanders “In the year 2022, three multibillionaires own more wealth than the bottom half of American society – 160 million Americans. Today, 45% of all new income goes to the top 1%, and CEOs of large corporations make a record-breaking 350 times what their workers earn.”

Because “oligarchy” is a slightly amorphous, subjective term, there is no definitive list of which countries are and are not oligarchies. However, a strong case could be made for each of the following countries: China, Iran, Saudi Arabia, North Korea, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, United States (debated), Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. Note that oligarchy is not necessarily an exclusive term. For example, while North Korea’s one-party system qualifies it as an oligarchy, it could also be classified as a hereditary Stalinist dictatorship and even an absolute monarchy.

Oligarchy Countries 2024

The struggles against oligarchy in the United States have been ongoing and multifaceted, reflecting the tension between democratic ideals and the concentration of power and wealth since prior to the nation’s founding. Here are some of the major struggles and how oligarchy was challenged in each case:

Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea Party was a protest against the British government’s Tea Act, which granted the British East India Company a monopoly on tea sales in the American colonies. This act was seen as an example of oligarchic control over the colonies, favoring a powerful corporation at the expense of local businesses and without the consent of the governed. The colonists’ act of defiance, dumping tea into Boston Harbor, was a catalyst for the American Revolution, which ultimately led to the establishment of a new nation founded on principles of representation and democracy3711.

In 1773, American colonists protested against British rule over the colonists by dumping 342 chests of tea into the harbor2. This event was the first major act of defiance to British rule over the colonists and rallied American patriots across the 13 colonies to fight for independence2.

Civil War

The Civil War was, in part, a struggle against the oligarchic power of Southern slaveholders who dominated the economy and politics of the South. The victory of the North in the Civil War and the subsequent passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments were meant to dismantle the oligarchic structure of the slave economy. However, the oligarchic system persisted in different forms, moving westward and establishing a foothold there, as argued by Heather Cox Richardson248.

The Civil War, Emancipation, and Reconstruction represent the victory not just of democracy but also of the working classes over the slaveholding oligarchy1. It also marked a victory for capitalist government1.

Carnegie Steel

The rise of Carnegie Steel, led by Andrew Carnegie, represented a form of oligarchy in the industrial era. Carnegie’s company became the largest and most profitable steel company in the world by the 1890s, largely due to strategies like vertical and horizontal integration49. However, the oligarchic power of Carnegie Steel was challenged by labor movements, most notably the Homestead Strike of 1892. Despite the defeat of the strikers, the event highlighted the struggle against oligarchic control in the industrial sector and set the stage for future labor rights movements510. As discussed above, work-life balance is the dream of those born between 1965 and 1980 in the USA (the Millennial Generation.)

Andrew Carnegie’s Carnegie Steel Company was sold in 1901 in one of the largest business transactions of the early 20th century, to become the major component of U.S. Steel3. U.S. Steel was a conglomerate with subsidiary companies3.


The antitrust case against Microsoft in the late 1990s and early 2000s can be seen as a struggle against oligarchic power in the technology sector. The U.S. government’s lawsuit against Microsoft alleged that the company had abused its market power to stifle competition. The case resulted in a settlement that imposed restrictions on Microsoft’s business practices, thereby promoting competition and challenging the company’s oligarchic dominance in the software market5.

Legal Challenges to Chevron Deference

The legal doctrine known as “Chevron deference” has been criticized for allowing administrative agencies, which can be influenced by powerful corporate interests, to interpret ambiguous laws. Some legal scholars and judges have argued that this doctrine violates the separation of powers and allows for oligarchic control over the lawmaking process. This has led to ongoing legal debates and challenges to the doctrine11. Chevron is one of the Dow Jones stocks used to compute the Dow Jones industrial average.

Trump Presidencies

The presidency of Donald Trump has been cited as an example of oligarchic tendencies in American politics, with critics arguing that his administration favored the wealthy and powerful26. Though Trump has yet to concede, the defeat of Trump in the 2020 election could be seen as a democratic response to these tendencies. However, the broader struggle against oligarchy in the context of the Trump presidency involves ongoing efforts to address wealth inequality, corporate influence in politics, and the protection of democratic institutions569.

Heather Cox Richardson argues that the rise of movement conservatism, as personified by Barry Goldwater in his 1964 presidential campaign, came to embody the vision of an oligarchic America. The new oligarchy’s triumph—one that combined economic domination with racial inequality—lay in a political alliance between the South and the West, Richardson argues, and in the Republican presidencies of Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, the Bushes, and finally Trump1.

Labor Movement

The labor movement in the United States, particularly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was a significant struggle against oligarchic control. Workers organized strikes and formed unions to fight against the power of industrialists and demand better wages and working conditions. The labor movement led to significant reforms, including the establishment of the eight-hour workday, the abolition of child labor, and the right to collective bargaining3.

Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s was a struggle against the oligarchic power of racial segregation and discrimination, particularly in the South. The movement led to significant legislative victories, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which dismantled legal segregation and protected the voting rights of African Americans2.

Women’s Suffrage Movement

The Women’s Suffrage Movement was a struggle against the oligarchic control of political power by men. The movement culminated in the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920, which granted women the right to vote2.

Antitrust Legislation

The passage of antitrust laws, such as the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 and the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914, represented a struggle against the oligarchic power of large corporations. These laws were designed to prevent monopolies and promote competition, thereby limiting the power of corporate oligarchs4.

Tax-the-Rich Legislation

Recent proposals to increase taxes on the wealthy represent a contemporary struggle against oligarchy. These proposals aim to reduce income inequality and limit the political influence of the wealthy. While these proposals face significant political challenges, they reflect a growing recognition of the dangers of oligarchy and a desire to take action against it911.

In each of these struggles, oligarchy was challenged through a combination of popular protest, legal action, and political change. However, the fight against the concentration of power and wealth is an ongoing process, with each victory presenting new challenges and forms of resistance.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

The maximum upload file size: 8 GB. You can upload: image, audio, video, document, spreadsheet, interactive, text, archive, code, other. Links to YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and other services inserted in the comment text will be automatically embedded. Drop file here

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.